America s past of human experiments revealed – Health – Health care – More health news, NBC News, looking for women.#Looking #for #women


Ugly past of U.S. human experiments uncovered

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ATLANTA Shocking as it may seem, U.S. government doctors once thought it was fine to experiment on disabled people and prison inmates. Such experiments included giving hepatitis to mental patients in Connecticut, squirting a pandemic flu virus up the noses of prisoners in Maryland, and injecting cancer cells into chronically ill people at a New York hospital.

Much of this horrific history is 40 to 80 years old, but it is the backdrop for a meeting in Washington this week by a presidential bioethics commission. The meeting was triggered by the government’s apology last fall for federal doctors infecting prisoners and mental patients in Guatemala with syphilis 65 years ago.

U.S. officials also acknowledged there had been dozens of similar experiments in the United States — studies that often involved making healthy people sick.

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An exhaustive review by The Associated Press of medical journal reports and decades-old press clippings found more than 40 such studies. At best, these were a search for lifesaving treatments; at worst, some amounted to curiosity-satisfying experiments that hurt people but provided no useful results.

Inevitably, they will be compared to the well-known Tuskegee syphilis study. In that episode, U.S. health officials tracked 600 black men in Alabama who already had syphilis but didn’t give them adequate treatment even after penicillin became available.

These studies were worse in at least one respect — they violated the concept of “first do no harm,” a fundamental medical principle that stretches back centuries.

“When you give somebody a disease — even by the standards of their time — you really cross the key ethical norm of the profession,” said Arthur Caplan, director of the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Bioethics.

Attitude similar to Nazi experiments

Attitudes about medical research were different then. Infectious diseases killed many more people years ago, and doctors worked urgently to invent and test cures. Many prominent researchers felt it was legitimate to experiment on people who did not have full rights in society — people like prisoners, mental patients, poor blacks. It was an attitude in some ways similar to that of Nazi doctors experimenting on Jews.

“There was definitely a sense — that we don’t have today — that sacrifice for the nation was important,” said Laura Stark, a Wesleyan University assistant professor of science in society, who is writing a book about past federal medical experiments.

The AP review of past research found:

  • A federally funded study begun in 1942 injected experimental flu vaccine in male patients at a state insane asylum in Ypsilanti, Mich., then exposed them to flu several months later. It was co-authored by Dr. Jonas Salk, who a decade later would become famous as inventor of the polio vaccine.

Some of the men weren’t able to describe their symptoms, raising serious questions about how well they understood what was being done to them. One newspaper account mentioned the test subjects were “senile and debilitated.” Then it quickly moved on to the promising results.

  • In federally funded studies in the 1940s, noted researcher Dr. W. Paul Havens Jr. exposed men to hepatitis in a series of experiments, including one using patients from mental institutions in Middletown and Norwich, Conn. Havens, a World Health Organization expert on viral diseases, was one of the first scientists to differentiate types of hepatitis and their causes.

A search of various news archives found no mention of the mental patients study, which made eight healthy men ill but broke no new ground in understanding the disease.

  • Researchers in the mid-1940s studied the transmission of a deadly stomach bug by having young men swallow unfiltered stool suspension. The study was conducted at the New York State Vocational Institution, a reformatory prison in West Coxsackie. The point was to see how well the disease spread that way as compared to spraying the germs and having test subjects breathe it. Swallowing it was a more effective way to spread the disease, the researchers concluded. The study doesn’t explain if the men were rewarded for this awful task.
  • A University of Minnesota study in the late 1940s injected 11 public service employee volunteers with malaria, then starved them for five days. Some were also subjected to hard labor, and those men lost an average of 14 pounds. They were treated for malarial fevers with quinine sulfate. One of the authors was Ancel Keys, a noted dietary scientist who developed K-rations for the military and the Mediterranean diet for the public. But a search of various news archives found no mention of the study.
  • For a study in 1957, when the Asian flu pandemic was spreading, federal researchers sprayed the virus in the noses of 23 inmates at Patuxent prison in Jessup, Md., to compare their reactions to those of 32 virus-exposed inmates who had been given a new vaccine.
  • Government researchers in the 1950s tried to infect about two dozen volunteering prison inmates with gonorrhea using two different methods in an experiment at a federal penitentiary in Atlanta. The bacteria was pumped directly into the urinary tract through the penis, according to their paper.

The men quickly developed the disease, but the researchers noted this method wasn’t comparable to how men normally got infected — by having sex with an infected partner. The men were later treated with antibiotics. The study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, but there was no mention of it in various news archives.

Though people in the studies were usually described as volunteers, historians and ethicists have questioned how well these people understood what was to be done to them and why, or whether they were coerced.


Javanotes 7, introduction.#Introduction


introduction

Introduction

WELCOME TO the Seventh Edition of Introduction to Programming Using Java, a free, on-line textbook on introductory programming, which uses Java as the language of instruction. This book is directed mainly towards beginning programmers, although it might also be useful for experienced programmers who want to learn something about Java. It is certainly not meant to provide complete coverage of the Java language.

The seventh edition requires Java 7, with just a couple brief mentions of Java 8. Previous versions included Java applets on the web pages that make up this book, but the applets have been eliminated from this version. Earlier editions of the book are still available; see the preface for links.

You can the download this web site for use on your own computer. PDF, e-book , and print versions of the textbook are also available. The PDF that includes links might be the best way to read it on your computer. Links to the downloads can be found at the bottom of this page.

Readers are strongly encouraged to try out the sample programs as they read the book! You can download the source code separately or as part of the web site using the links below. See README file for information about how to compile and run the examples.

Short Table of Contents:

  • Full Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Overview: The Mental Landscape
  • Chapter 2: Programming in the Small I: Names and Things
  • Chapter 3: Programming in the Small II: Control
  • Chapter 4: Programming in the Large I: Subroutines
  • Chapter 5: Programming in the Large II: Objects and Classes
  • Chapter 6: Introduction to GUI Programming
  • Chapter 7: Arrays and ArrayLists
  • Chapter 8: Correctness, Robustness, Efficiency
  • Chapter 9: Linked Data Structures and Recursion
  • Chapter 10: Generic Programming and Collection Classes
  • Chapter 11: Advanced Input/Output: Streams, Files, and Networking
  • Chapter 12: Threads and Multiprocessing
  • Chapter 13: Advanced GUI Programming
  • Source Code for All Examples in this Book
  • Glossary
  • News and Errata

1996–2016, David J. Eck.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. (This license allows you to redistribute this book in unmodified form for non-commercial purposes. It allows you to make and distribute modified versions for non-commercial purposes, as long as you include an attribution to the original author, clearly describe the modifications that you have made, and distribute the modified work under the same license as the original. Permission might be given by the author for other uses. See the license for full details.)

Downloading And Other Links

  • Full Web Site Download:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.zip This “zip” archive contains a complete copy of the web site. It should be usable on almost any computer. Size: 4.3 Megabytes.
  • Source Code Downloads:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-example-programs.zip A zip archive of the “source” directory from the web site, which includes source code for sample programs from the text. Note that if you download the complete web site, then you already have a copy of the same source directory. See the README file. Size: 773 Kilobytes.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-exercise-solutions.zip A zip archive containing source code for all the end-of-chapter exercises. These have been extracted from the web pages that contain the solutions as a convenience. They are not included in the web site download. See the README file. Size: 322 Kilobytes.
  • PDF Downloads:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-linked.pdf a PDF version with internal links for navigation and external links to source code files, exercise solutions, and other resources that are not included in the PDF. Recommended for on-screen reading. Size: 6.3 Megabytes; 755 pages.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.pdf a PDF version without links, more suitable for printing. This PDF is in the format that is used for the printed version of the text, except that it also includes an appendix listing example programs and a glossary (since they would have exceeded the lulu.com page limit). Size: 5.9 Megabytes; 762 pages.
  • E-book Downloads.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.mobi, for Kindle.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.epub, for most other ebook readers.

      These should be considered experimental. Depending on the particular ebook reader that you use, there can be problems with rendering of long lines in program code sample. You might find that lines that are too long to fit across your screen are incorrectly split into multiple lines, or that the part that extends beyond the right margin is simply dropped. On some readers, you might be able to scroll horizontally to see the hidden text. The ebooks include answers to quizzes and exercises but do not include source code for sample programs; the sample programs can be downloaded separately, above.

  • Print Copies Available from Lulu.com:
    • Printed versions I have made this book available for purchase in printed versions from the print-on-demand publisher lulu.com. This is for convenience only, for those who would like to have a bound printout in a nice form. (Please do not feel obliged to buy the printed version; I do not make any money from it!) The entire book is available in a rather thick printed version at http://www.lulu.com/content/612392. It is also available in two parts as http://www.lulu.com/content/559884 and http://www.lulu.com/content/822314. Note that these printed books are the original Version 7, and they still contain errors that have been fixed in Version 7.0.2. See the on-line news page for a list of substantive errors.
  • Source Files for the Book
    • Complete Sources The complete source files that are used to produce both the web site and PDF versions of this book are available for download, but will be useful only to a very limited audience. See the end of the preface for more information and a link.

(1 August 2015, Version 7.0.1 released)

(19 March 2016, ebook downloads added)

(10 December 2016, Version 7.0.2 releaced)


What Does It Mean to Seek the Lord, Desiring God, seek.#Seek


What Does It Mean to Seek the Lord?

Seek

John Piper

What Is the Love of God?

How to Live Wisely in the End Times

To Live Is Christ

His Light Shines in the Darkness

We Are Accountable for What We Know

How Do I Process the Moral Failures of My Historical Heroes?

John Piper

Is Racial Harmony Disintegrating?

Five Ways the Prosperity Gospel Makes You Poor

What Is the Love of God?

How to Live Wisely in the End Times

To Live Is Christ

His Light Shines in the Darkness

Founder Teacher, desiringGod.org

Seeking the Lord means seeking his presence. “Presence” is a common translation of the Hebrew word “face.” Literally, we are to seek his “face.” But this is the Hebraic way of having access to God. To be before his face is to be in his presence.

But aren’t his children always in his presence? Yes and no. Yes in two senses: First, in the sense that God is omnipresent and therefore always near everything and everyone. He holds everything in being. His power is ever-present in sustaining and governing all things.

And second, yes, he is always present with his children in the sense of his covenant commitment to always stand by us and work for us and turn everything for our good. “Behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age” (Matthew 28:20).

When He’s Not with Us

But there is a sense in which God’s presence is not with us always. For this reason, the Bible repeatedly calls us to “seek the Lord . . . seek his presence continually.” God’s manifest, conscious, trusted presence is not our constant experience. There are seasons when we become neglectful of God and give him no thought and do not put trust in him and we find him “unmanifested” — that is, unperceived as great and beautiful and valuable by the eyes of our hearts.

“God calls us to enjoy continual consciousness of his supreme greatness and beauty and worth.”

His face — the brightness of his personal character — is hidden behind the curtain of our carnal desires. This condition is always ready to overtake us. That is why we are told to “seek his presence continually.” God calls us to enjoy continual consciousness of his supreme greatness and beauty and worth.

What It Means to Seek

This happens through “seeking.” Continual seeking. But what does that mean practically? Both the Old and New Testaments say it is a “setting of the mind and heart” on God. It is the conscious fixing or focusing of our mind’s attention and our heart’s affection on God.

“Now set your mind and heart to seek the Lord your God.” (1 Chronicles 22:19)

“If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth.” (Colossians 3:1–2)

A Conscious Choice

This setting of the mind is the opposite of mental coasting. It is a conscious choice to direct the heart toward God. This is what Paul prays for the church: “May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ” (2 Thessalonians 3:5). It is a conscious effort on our part. But that effort to seek God is a gift from God.

“Seeking God is the conscious effort to get through the natural means to God himself.”

We do not make this mental and emotional effort to seek God because he is lost. That’s why we would seek a coin or a sheep. But God is not lost. Nevertheless, there is always something through which or around which we must go to meet him consciously. This going through or around is what seeking is. He is often hidden. Veiled. We must go through mediators and around obstacles.

The heavens are telling the glory of God. So we can seek him through that. He reveals himself in his word. So we can seek him through that. He shows himself to us in the evidences of grace in other people. So we can seek him through that. The seeking is the conscious effort to get through the natural means to God himself — to constantly set our minds toward God in all our experiences, to direct our minds and hearts toward him through the means of his revelation. This is what seeking God means.

Obstacles to Avoid

And there are endless obstacles that we must get around in order to see him clearly, and so that we can be in the light of his presence. We must flee spiritually dulling activities. We must run from them and get around them. They are blocking our way.

We know what makes us vitally sensitive to God’s appearances in the world and in the word. And we know what dulls us and blinds us and makes us not even want to seek him. These things we must move away from and go around if we would see God. That is what seeking God involves.

“The great promise to those who seek the Lord is that he will be found.”

And as we direct our minds and hearts Godward in all our experiences, we cry out to him. This too is what seeking him means.

“Seek the Lord while he may be found; call upon him while he is near.” (Isaiah 55:6)

“If you will seek God and plead with the Almighty for mercy . . . ” (Job 8:5)

Seeking involves calling and pleading. “O Lord, open my eyes. O Lord, pull back the curtain of my own blindness. Lord, have mercy and reveal yourself. I long to see your face.”

Humility Essential

The great obstacle to seeking the Lord is pride. “In the pride of his face the wicked does not seek him” (Psalm 10:4). Therefore, humility is essential to seeking the Lord.

The great promise to those who seek the Lord is that he will be found. “If you seek him, he will be found by you” (1 Chronicles 28:9). And when he is found, there is great reward. “Whoever would draw near to God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him” (Hebrews 11:6). God himself is our greatest reward. And when we have him, we have everything. Therefore, “Seek the Lord and his strength; seek his presence continually!”


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Javanotes 7, introduction.#Introduction


introduction

Introduction

WELCOME TO the Seventh Edition of Introduction to Programming Using Java, a free, on-line textbook on introductory programming, which uses Java as the language of instruction. This book is directed mainly towards beginning programmers, although it might also be useful for experienced programmers who want to learn something about Java. It is certainly not meant to provide complete coverage of the Java language.

The seventh edition requires Java 7, with just a couple brief mentions of Java 8. Previous versions included Java applets on the web pages that make up this book, but the applets have been eliminated from this version. Earlier editions of the book are still available; see the preface for links.

You can the download this web site for use on your own computer. PDF, e-book , and print versions of the textbook are also available. The PDF that includes links might be the best way to read it on your computer. Links to the downloads can be found at the bottom of this page.

Readers are strongly encouraged to try out the sample programs as they read the book! You can download the source code separately or as part of the web site using the links below. See README file for information about how to compile and run the examples.

Short Table of Contents:

  • Full Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Overview: The Mental Landscape
  • Chapter 2: Programming in the Small I: Names and Things
  • Chapter 3: Programming in the Small II: Control
  • Chapter 4: Programming in the Large I: Subroutines
  • Chapter 5: Programming in the Large II: Objects and Classes
  • Chapter 6: Introduction to GUI Programming
  • Chapter 7: Arrays and ArrayLists
  • Chapter 8: Correctness, Robustness, Efficiency
  • Chapter 9: Linked Data Structures and Recursion
  • Chapter 10: Generic Programming and Collection Classes
  • Chapter 11: Advanced Input/Output: Streams, Files, and Networking
  • Chapter 12: Threads and Multiprocessing
  • Chapter 13: Advanced GUI Programming
  • Source Code for All Examples in this Book
  • Glossary
  • News and Errata

1996–2016, David J. Eck.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. (This license allows you to redistribute this book in unmodified form for non-commercial purposes. It allows you to make and distribute modified versions for non-commercial purposes, as long as you include an attribution to the original author, clearly describe the modifications that you have made, and distribute the modified work under the same license as the original. Permission might be given by the author for other uses. See the license for full details.)

Downloading And Other Links

  • Full Web Site Download:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.zip This “zip” archive contains a complete copy of the web site. It should be usable on almost any computer. Size: 4.3 Megabytes.
  • Source Code Downloads:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-example-programs.zip A zip archive of the “source” directory from the web site, which includes source code for sample programs from the text. Note that if you download the complete web site, then you already have a copy of the same source directory. See the README file. Size: 773 Kilobytes.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-exercise-solutions.zip A zip archive containing source code for all the end-of-chapter exercises. These have been extracted from the web pages that contain the solutions as a convenience. They are not included in the web site download. See the README file. Size: 322 Kilobytes.
  • PDF Downloads:
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7-linked.pdf a PDF version with internal links for navigation and external links to source code files, exercise solutions, and other resources that are not included in the PDF. Recommended for on-screen reading. Size: 6.3 Megabytes; 755 pages.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.pdf a PDF version without links, more suitable for printing. This PDF is in the format that is used for the printed version of the text, except that it also includes an appendix listing example programs and a glossary (since they would have exceeded the lulu.com page limit). Size: 5.9 Megabytes; 762 pages.
  • E-book Downloads.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.mobi, for Kindle.
    • http://math.hws.edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes7.epub, for most other ebook readers.

      These should be considered experimental. Depending on the particular ebook reader that you use, there can be problems with rendering of long lines in program code sample. You might find that lines that are too long to fit across your screen are incorrectly split into multiple lines, or that the part that extends beyond the right margin is simply dropped. On some readers, you might be able to scroll horizontally to see the hidden text. The ebooks include answers to quizzes and exercises but do not include source code for sample programs; the sample programs can be downloaded separately, above.

  • Print Copies Available from Lulu.com:
    • Printed versions I have made this book available for purchase in printed versions from the print-on-demand publisher lulu.com. This is for convenience only, for those who would like to have a bound printout in a nice form. (Please do not feel obliged to buy the printed version; I do not make any money from it!) The entire book is available in a rather thick printed version at http://www.lulu.com/content/612392. It is also available in two parts as http://www.lulu.com/content/559884 and http://www.lulu.com/content/822314. Note that these printed books are the original Version 7, and they still contain errors that have been fixed in Version 7.0.2. See the on-line news page for a list of substantive errors.
  • Source Files for the Book
    • Complete Sources The complete source files that are used to produce both the web site and PDF versions of this book are available for download, but will be useful only to a very limited audience. See the end of the preface for more information and a link.

(1 August 2015, Version 7.0.1 released)

(19 March 2016, ebook downloads added)

(10 December 2016, Version 7.0.2 releaced)


Introduction#Introduction


Introduction

Navigation

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The Financial Secrecy Index ranks jurisdictions according to their secrecy and the scale of their offshore financial activities. A politically neutral ranking, it is a tool for understanding global financial secrecy, tax havens or secrecy jurisdictions, and illicit financial flows or capital flight.

The Financial Secrecy Index is released every two years and it was first launched in 2009. The latest Financial Secrecy Index was launched on November 2, 2015. The next Financial Secrecy Index will be released in January 2018.

Shining light into dark places

An estimated $21 to $32 trillion of private financial wealth is located, untaxed or lightly taxed, in secrecy jurisdictions around the world. Secrecy jurisdictions – a term we often use as an alternative to the more widely used term tax havens – use secrecy to attract illicit and illegitimate or abusive financial flows.

Illicit cross-border financial flows have been estimated at $1-1.6 trillion per year: dwarfing the US$135 billion or so in global foreign aid. Since the 1970s African countries alone have lost over $1 trillion in capital flight, while combined external debts are less than $200 billion. So Africa is a major net creditor to the world – but its assets are in the hands of a wealthy élite, protected by offshore secrecy; while the debts are shouldered by broad African populations.

Yet all rich countries suffer too. For example, European countries like Greece, Italy and Portugal have been brought to their knees partly by decades of tax evasion and state looting via offshore secrecy.

* British overseas territory or crown dependency. If Britain’s network were assessed together, it would be at the top.

A global industry has developed involving the world’s biggest banks, law practices, accounting firms and specialist providers who design and market secretive offshore structures for their tax- and law-dodging clients. ‘Competition’ between jurisdictions to provide secrecy facilities has, particularly since the era of financial globalisation really took off in the 1980s, become a central feature of global financial markets.

The problems go far beyond tax. In providing secrecy, the offshore world corrupts and distorts markets and investments, shaping them in ways that have nothing to do with efficiency. The secrecy world creates a criminogenic hothouse for multiple evils including fraud, tax cheating, escape from financial regulations, embezzlement, insider dealing, bribery, money laundering, and plenty more. It provides multiple ways for insiders to extract wealth at the expense of societies, creating political impunity and undermining the healthy ‘no taxation without representation’ bargain that has underpinned the growth of accountable modern nation states. Many poorer countries, deprived of tax and haemorrhaging capital into secrecy jurisdictions, rely on foreign aid handouts.

This hurts citizens of rich and poor countries alike.

What is the significance of this index?

In identifying the most important providers of international financial secrecy, the Financial Secrecy Index reveals that traditional stereotypes of tax havens are misconceived. The world’s most important providers of financial secrecy harbouring looted assets are mostly not small, palm-fringed islands as many suppose, but some of the world’s biggest and wealthiest countries. Rich OECD member countries and their satellites are the main recipients of or conduits for these illicit flows.

The implications for global power politics are clearly enormous, and help explain why for so many years international efforts to crack down on tax havens and financial secrecy were so ineffective, it is the recipients of these gigantic inflows that set the rules of the game.

Yet our analysis also reveals that recently things have genuinely started to improve. The global financial crisis and ensuing economic crisis, combined with recent activism and exposure of these problems by civil society actors and the media, and rising concerns about inequality in many countries, have created a set of political conditions unparalleled in history. The world’s politicians have been forced to take notice of tax havens. For the first time since we first created our index in 2009, we can say that something of a sea change is underway.

World leaders are now routinely talking about the scourges of financial secrecy and tax havens, and putting into place new mechanisms to tackle the problem. For the first time the G20 countries have mandated the OECD to put together a new global system of automatic information exchange to help countries find out about the cross-border holdings of their taxpayers and criminals. This scheme is now being rolled out, with first information due to be exchanged in 2017.

Yet of course these schemes are full of loopholes and shortcomings: many countries are planning to pay only lip service to them, if that — and many are actively seeking ways to undermine progress, with the help of a professional infrastructure of secrecy enablers. The edifice of global financial secrecy has been weakened – but it remains fully alive and hugely destructive. Despite what you may have read in the media, Swiss banking secrecy is far from dead. Without sustained political pressure from millions of people, the momentum could be lost.

The only realistic way to address these problems comprehensively is to tackle them at root: by directly confronting offshore secrecy and the global infrastructure that creates it. A first step towards this goal is to identify as accurately as possible the jurisdictions that make it their business to provide offshore secrecy.

This is what the FSI does. It is the product of years of detailed research by a dedicated team, and there is nothing else like it out there. We also have a set of unique reports outlining detailed offshore histories of the biggest players in the game.


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    America s past of human experiments revealed – Health – Health care – More health news, NBC News, looking for women.#Looking #for #women


    Ugly past of U.S. human experiments uncovered

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    ATLANTA Shocking as it may seem, U.S. government doctors once thought it was fine to experiment on disabled people and prison inmates. Such experiments included giving hepatitis to mental patients in Connecticut, squirting a pandemic flu virus up the noses of prisoners in Maryland, and injecting cancer cells into chronically ill people at a New York hospital.

    Much of this horrific history is 40 to 80 years old, but it is the backdrop for a meeting in Washington this week by a presidential bioethics commission. The meeting was triggered by the government’s apology last fall for federal doctors infecting prisoners and mental patients in Guatemala with syphilis 65 years ago.

    U.S. officials also acknowledged there had been dozens of similar experiments in the United States — studies that often involved making healthy people sick.

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    An exhaustive review by The Associated Press of medical journal reports and decades-old press clippings found more than 40 such studies. At best, these were a search for lifesaving treatments; at worst, some amounted to curiosity-satisfying experiments that hurt people but provided no useful results.

    Inevitably, they will be compared to the well-known Tuskegee syphilis study. In that episode, U.S. health officials tracked 600 black men in Alabama who already had syphilis but didn’t give them adequate treatment even after penicillin became available.

    These studies were worse in at least one respect — they violated the concept of “first do no harm,” a fundamental medical principle that stretches back centuries.

    “When you give somebody a disease — even by the standards of their time — you really cross the key ethical norm of the profession,” said Arthur Caplan, director of the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Bioethics.

    Attitude similar to Nazi experiments

    Attitudes about medical research were different then. Infectious diseases killed many more people years ago, and doctors worked urgently to invent and test cures. Many prominent researchers felt it was legitimate to experiment on people who did not have full rights in society — people like prisoners, mental patients, poor blacks. It was an attitude in some ways similar to that of Nazi doctors experimenting on Jews.

    “There was definitely a sense — that we don’t have today — that sacrifice for the nation was important,” said Laura Stark, a Wesleyan University assistant professor of science in society, who is writing a book about past federal medical experiments.

    The AP review of past research found:

    • A federally funded study begun in 1942 injected experimental flu vaccine in male patients at a state insane asylum in Ypsilanti, Mich., then exposed them to flu several months later. It was co-authored by Dr. Jonas Salk, who a decade later would become famous as inventor of the polio vaccine.

    Some of the men weren’t able to describe their symptoms, raising serious questions about how well they understood what was being done to them. One newspaper account mentioned the test subjects were “senile and debilitated.” Then it quickly moved on to the promising results.

    • In federally funded studies in the 1940s, noted researcher Dr. W. Paul Havens Jr. exposed men to hepatitis in a series of experiments, including one using patients from mental institutions in Middletown and Norwich, Conn. Havens, a World Health Organization expert on viral diseases, was one of the first scientists to differentiate types of hepatitis and their causes.

    A search of various news archives found no mention of the mental patients study, which made eight healthy men ill but broke no new ground in understanding the disease.

    • Researchers in the mid-1940s studied the transmission of a deadly stomach bug by having young men swallow unfiltered stool suspension. The study was conducted at the New York State Vocational Institution, a reformatory prison in West Coxsackie. The point was to see how well the disease spread that way as compared to spraying the germs and having test subjects breathe it. Swallowing it was a more effective way to spread the disease, the researchers concluded. The study doesn’t explain if the men were rewarded for this awful task.
    • A University of Minnesota study in the late 1940s injected 11 public service employee volunteers with malaria, then starved them for five days. Some were also subjected to hard labor, and those men lost an average of 14 pounds. They were treated for malarial fevers with quinine sulfate. One of the authors was Ancel Keys, a noted dietary scientist who developed K-rations for the military and the Mediterranean diet for the public. But a search of various news archives found no mention of the study.
    • For a study in 1957, when the Asian flu pandemic was spreading, federal researchers sprayed the virus in the noses of 23 inmates at Patuxent prison in Jessup, Md., to compare their reactions to those of 32 virus-exposed inmates who had been given a new vaccine.
    • Government researchers in the 1950s tried to infect about two dozen volunteering prison inmates with gonorrhea using two different methods in an experiment at a federal penitentiary in Atlanta. The bacteria was pumped directly into the urinary tract through the penis, according to their paper.

    The men quickly developed the disease, but the researchers noted this method wasn’t comparable to how men normally got infected — by having sex with an infected partner. The men were later treated with antibiotics. The study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, but there was no mention of it in various news archives.

    Though people in the studies were usually described as volunteers, historians and ethicists have questioned how well these people understood what was to be done to them and why, or whether they were coerced.


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