How To Write Spark Applications in Python – Applied Informatics #spark #application


Applied Informatics Inc. Blog

How To Write Spark Applications in Python

MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation tool for processing and generating large data sets. Users specify a map function that processes a key/value pair to generate a set of intermediate key/value pairs, and a reduce function that merges all intermediate values associated with the same intermediate key. Google presented this in a paper in 2004 and now in the world of big data, processing petabytes of data seem easy. Later in 2010, another paper by Matei Zaharia added Spark. Thus, Spark came into existence and became Apache s top-level project in 2014.

What is Apache Spark ?

Spark is a distributed memory computational framework.

It aims to provide a single platform that can be used for real-time applications (streaming), complex analysis (machine learning), interactive queries(shell), and batch processing (Hadoop integration).

  • It has specialized modules that run on top of Spark – SQL. Streaming, Graph Processing(GraphX), Machine Learning(MLLIb).
  • Spark introduces an abstract common data format that is used for efficient data sharing across parallel computation RDD.
  • Spark supports Map/Reduce programming model. (Note: Not same as Hadoop MR ).

Spark Application Building Blocks

First thing that a Spark program does is create a SparkContext object, which tells Spark how to access a cluster.

  • Connects to a cluster manager which allocates resources across applications.
  • Acquires executors on cluster nodes – worker processes to run computations and store data.
  • Sends app code to the executors.
  • Sends tasks for the executors to run.

Resilient Distributed Datasets (RDD) are the primary abstraction in Spark – a fault-tolerant collection of elements that can be operated on in parallel.

There are currently two types:

  • Parallelized collections – takes an existing Scala collection and runs functions on it in parallel.
  • Hadoop datasets – runs functions on each record of a file in Hadoop distributed file system or any other storage system supported by Hadoop.

Two types of operations can be performed on RDDs transformations and actions.

Spark is very easy to set up and run. Assuming that you have Java and Python installed we can download pre-built spark packages from .

$tar xvf spark-1.4.1-bin-hadoop2.4.tgz

$mv spark-1.4.1-bin-hadoop2.4 /usr/local/spark

Edit your BASH file to add Spark to your PATH and to set the SPARK_HOME environment variable. These help in using spark via bash shell/terminal.

Now we are ready to run our Spark shell called pyspark (python interpreter with Spark API access).

Single node stand alone Spark cluster installation is now ready to use. In the above shell, we can perform or execute Spark API as well as python code. But the workflow we follow is limited to the application architecture of Spark, which usually includes manipulating the RDD (transformations and actions).

Building the Application

Let us start with creating a driver program, in which we will first define Spark context.

  • Create a RDD from file (can be on local. hdfs or data on Cassandra, hbase) or create another RDD by transforming an existing RDD.
  • Invoke closures (functions) on each element of the RDD.
  • Perform actions on RDDs, which will kick off the computation on cluster.

All transformations in Spark are lazy, in that they do not compute their results right away. Instead, they just remember the transformations applied to some base dataset (e.g. a file). The transformations are only computed when an action requires a result to be returned to the driver program. Also, when Spark runs a closure on a worker, Spark operations work on RDDs containing any type of objects. A few special operations are available only on RDDs of key-value pairs. Visit links for complete list of transformations and actions .

Spark applications run as independent set of processes on a cluster, coordinated by the SparkContext object in your main program (called the driver program ). Specifically, to run on a cluster, the SparkContext can connect to several types of cluster managers (either Spark’s own stand alone cluster manager or Mesos/YARN), which allocates resources across applications. After connecting to the cluster, application code and libraries specified are passed to executors and finally, SparkContext assigns tasks to executors.

Spark Application Template

Let’s write an application for word count following the above template.

In order to run the above application we need to run following commands. This will submit the application to cluster for execution.

Some of the commonly used options for spark-submit are:

  • class: The entry point for your application (e.g.apache.spark.examples.SparkPi)
  • master: The master URL for the cluster (e.g. spark://
  • deploy-mode: Whether to deploy your driver on the worker nodes (cluster) or locally as an external client (client) (default:client)*
  • conf: Arbitrary Spark configuration property in key=value format. For values that contain spaces wrap “key=value” in quotes (as shown).
  • application-jar: Path to a bundled jar including your application and all dependencies. The URL must be globally visible inside of your cluster, for instance, anhdfs:// path or a file:// path that is present on all nodes.
  • application-arguments: Arguments passed to the main method of your main class, if any
  • py-files option can be used to distribute .egg. zip and .py libraries to executors.

When using Spark-submit, the application jar along with any jars included with the jars option will be automatically transferred to the cluster and copied to the working directory for each SparkContext on the executor nodes.

Enough of WordCount

Here is how we can write an application to calculate the results of following query in Spark application (and not with SparkSQL).

$ spark-submit employee.jsonl
In this blog I have introduced a way to write scalable application using apache spark in python. Also, have tried to give an insight into the building blocks of spark application. Stay tuned for the next blog, where I will be blogging about how we at Applied are leveraging apache spark to process millions of healthcare records to affiliate them with respective organizations. We mostly use spark for getting insights from healthcare records like pubmed,ctgov,nihr and record linking at scale. Follow me on twitter

Post your feedbacks and queries in the comments section and I will get back to you.

Accreditation Guide #accredited #online #colleges #without #application #fee


Accreditation Guide

Every year, thousands of students research colleges and universities to find academic programs and determine the overall quality of the institution. In some cases, this is fairly easy. Many traditional brick-and-mortar schools have years to build up a reputation of academic excellence, but newer schools, including online colleges, don’t have that luxury. Instead, students have to find other ways to verify the school’s academic programs. One way to tell if a school’s academic programs meet an acceptable standard is through evaluating accreditation the affirmation that a school’s programs meet set criteria and benchmarks.


Benefits of Accreditation

  • Shows the public the school is a trustworthy educational institution.
  • Helps to validate the integrity of student transcripts.
  • Allows students to transfer between accredited institutions.
  • Shows employers that a job applicant has received an appropriate level of education.
  • Encourages the improvement of academic programs.

Accreditation Types

Schools are accredited in two main ways: institutional accreditation, which looks at the entire college or university, and programmatic accreditation, which focuses on a particular program in a subject such as chemical engineering or business.

Institutional accreditation involves confirming that a school has sufficient information resources (such as libraries and journal subscriptions) and student services, as well as a qualified faculty of sufficient size and policies to protect your interests in case of dispute or problems. Typically, it also requires a record of successful and graduated students.

Programmatic accreditation varies widely. Online colleges have different needs for the programs they provide and the students they serve, and the standards for chemical engineering will be much different from early childhood education. It is possible for a school to be accredited as an institution, and not have specific accreditation for individual departments. For example, accredited online colleges specializing in business education may offer math courses without accreditation in mathematics. This will not reflect poorly on you if you pursue a business degree at that college, although you may wish to seek a degree in mathematics elsewhere for this reason.

An institution seeking either type of accreditation submits an application describing their program and explaining how it meets the accrediting body’s standards, along with a substantial fee to cover the expenses of the application process. If everything is in order, assessors or a survey team arrive to verify the application’s claims, observe classes and speak with faculty and students. Assuming no problems are discovered, the school is entered into the rolls of accredited institutions and periodically examined to make sure standards are kept up.

National vs. Regional Accreditation

Accrediting bodies in the United States are private, non-governmental groups that work in cooperation with one another, the federal Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). CHEA can be viewed as the “accreditor of accreditors,” making sure that accrediting bodies all have broadly compatible standards. Details can differ in various parts of the nation, but if you begin your degree in a program in New England and transfer your credits to a West Coast university, you can be sure your education will be viewed favorably.

CHEA has historically focused on traditional brick-and-mortar educational institutions, and its efforts are divided through six regional accrediting bodies, each of which covers schools in certain parts of the United States as well as nearby nations and territories, such as Puerto Rico.

Regionally accredited online colleges are not common, although more traditional institutions are also offering primarily or entirely online degree programs. Regional online college accreditation is valid, especially if you are taking courses from a college in your area. You may have the option to take some courses on-campus, and you will typically also have access to their libraries and other brick-and-mortar facilities. Nationally accredited schools are usually specialized, either by focusing on a particular trade or vocation or on theological study.

Programmatic accreditation is usually conducted on a national level as well, with different professional groups providing online colleges accreditation in subjects from audiology to veterinary medicine. Often, these professional groups are also open for membership, which can provide you with valuable professional contacts and additional material for study. This type of institution is ideal if you want to pursue your degree at a college that is nationally or regionally accredited and also accredited in your chosen program of study. However, this isn’t always possible, so at the very least, you should attend an institution with national or regional accreditation.

Determining if an Institution is Accredited

There are several ways you can find out if an institution is accredited. CHEA hosts a directory of the thousands of schools that have earned accreditation, as do many state departments of education. A “master” list is also hosted by the federal Department of Education, the Database of Accredited Postsecondary Institutions and Programs. and can be searched. However, keep in mind that the Department of Education cooperates with CHEA and its member groups, but does not control them. Additionally, the database is updated periodically, and schools with new accreditation may not be listed, while schools that recently lost their accreditation may still be listed. Finally, it is limited to programs within the United States.

Some schools are not accredited because they are too new or do not want to be accredited. However, it is in your best interest to either choose an accredited school that will be recognized or closely investigate schools that are not accredited. Find out why they haven’t reached accreditation, if they are pursuing it and if credits will transfer.

It is important to remember that the Department of Education will not recognize any accrediting agency that does not comply with its criteria of academic excellence. Once an institution is accredited, the Department of Education will add it to its database of recognized accreditation agencies. If your school is not eligible for federal financial aid, chances are it is not recognized by the Department of Education.

Accrediting Agencies

There are currently over eighty accreditation agencies that accredit on the national and regional level, and for specialized academic programs such as arts, social services, healthcare, education, law, and personal care and services. Currently, there are 25 accrediting agencies that are pending recognition from the Department of Education, either for initial recognition or to expand the scope of its accreditation. The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) recognizes many of the same institutions, in addition to institutions outside of the United States. There are currently a total of 68 national, regional, faith-based and programmatic accreditation agencies recognized by CHEA.

There are six regional accrediting agencies in the United States and many others that provide specialized accreditation. These organizations have directories of accredited schools on their websites, which is another tool you can use to verify the accreditation status of an online college. The six regional agencies are:

Check and Cross-Check Accreditation Resources

To really get a good picture of whether a school you’re interested in enrolling in is accredited, check out all of the sources we’ve mentioned. Cross-referencing between multiple sources will ensure that you’re getting the most updated and accurate information available about a school’s accreditation status.

Most schools include accreditation information on their website, but the Better Business Bureau reports that some of these accrediting organizations may be bogus. If you come across an accrediting organization you’re not sure about, you can search the U.S. Department of Education’s (DOE) website to see if it is a nationally-recognized institution. You can also search by school, and similar to the NCES database the page will include the name of the accrediting agency and the date of accreditation. However, the DOE states the information within the database may not accurate, current or complete. Therefore, you may want to check both sources to get the most up-to-date information.

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We make Customer-centric iOS/iPhone Applications

iPhone Application Development India (IADI) provides native iPhone app development services with the focus on helping our clients boost performance for the long term. We at IADI, a top iPhone app development company – offer a wide range of iPhone App Development solutions right from consulting, UX/UI, iPhone app development to deployment.

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Tutorial 1: Mobile Application Testing Strategy #mobile #testing, #mobile #application #testing, #tutorial, #series, #testing #strategy


Mobile Testing Tutorial Series – Tutorial 1 Mobile Application Testing Strategy

Once again, we are announcing new tutorial series on Mobile Testing Tutorial series. You will learn challenges and solutions on Mobile testing, how to define the Testing Strategy for Mobile Application testing, what are the different types of testing perform on mobile devices, overview of Automation testing tools for mobile and many more.

We have created this tutorial series to learn basic and advance concepts of Mobile application Testing. We are going to cover following topics in this tutorial series. For your convenience below we have listed all tutorials on this page.

Mobile Testing Tutorials:

Tutorial 7. Real Device Vs. Emulator Testing

Tutorial 10. Overview of mobile Automation Calabash

Tutorial 11. Overview of mobile Automation IOS-Driver

This Mobile Testing Tutorial series is simple and easy to understand and to better understanding we recommend to go through sequentially.

Tutorial 1. Mobile Application Testing Strategies

In recent years, mobile market has come with increasing number of mobile devices, smart phones, tablets, and many other mobile applications. It has become a primary resource of communication for business owners, consumers, and clients.

The increasing number of mobile app business is totally into consumers hand; consumers decide which mobile application to rock or which to throughout.

Many applications come in the market; application failure and success totally depend on consumers like and dislike. However, the big question arises – What all things can make a mobile app appealing to influence consumer behaviors and make them connected with your brand and products?

Hidden secret of successful mobile app is its strong mobile app development strategy. Strong strategy becomes a key component of app development and decides whether the mobile app is going to meet customer expectations and business goals or not.

Mobile application testing is a gateway to test the quality of a mobile app before reaching their target audience and app stores.

1#. Selection of Device Model

Choosing a mobile device to test a mobile application is a most leading thought, before initializing the mobile app testing process. It’s a very difficult decision, because the mobile you choose for testing an app will be represented to millions and billions of customers.

Various things to be considers before selecting the mobile device for testing,

  • OS Version– Testing of a mobile app should be done on all major versions of mobile OS.
  • Screen Resolution– Although, users play with different screen resolutions while using the app, testing should be done on various screen resolution.
  • Compatibility Factor– A mobile applications may behave in a different manner on smartphone, tablet, and any other mobile devices, so the mobile application should be tested on all devices with which it is compatible.

While choosing the device model, if necessary, memory size, connectivity, etc can also be taken into account.

2#. Beta Testing process

Beta testing process is an excellent and very effective method of mobile app testing. This process meets you to real world testers, developers, real devices, real communicating network, and extensive geographic exposure.

By implementing beta testing on mobile app, testing facilitates these many things,

  • Network density
  • How well the particular app is behaving on a specific devices
  • Networking of real-world users with the app
  • How well other equipment related to the particular device behaves.
  • Compatibility of device with multiple networks (Wi-Fi, 4G, 3G, etc.)

3#. Cloud Mobile App Testing process

Cloud testing is another helpful selection to test mobile applications where it delivers a web-based mobile testing environment to deploy, test, and manage the mobile application. One of the biggest benefit, it reduces the project cost too.

Let’s see, what all benefits users get by using his testing process,

  • Although, Cloud testing provides a synchronized and pre-configured test environments; very capable in reducing defects associated with mistakenly designed test environments to improve the quality of application to a great amount.
  • By using this testing process, you no need to invest on any other advance testing tools, various types of configurations, licensing, and testing resources. It saves testing business from setting up on-premise test environment which is time consuming and cause the project delays. Moreover, cloud testing process reduces the cost, time, and increases the testing efficiency.
  • It is much more capable in solving problem of complex, dynamic, and dissimilar app in an in-house environment.
  • A cloud-based testing process delivers real-time testing results where defects are analyzed while running the test.

4#. Network Connectivity

All mobile applications deliver rich functionality on outstanding network connectivity. So, to get the real result, it is necessary to test the mobile application of supported network environment.

Various network imitation tools are accessible to test mobile apps which offer great assessment to the testing activities. These tools test mobile applications in different network speeds, bandwidths variations, etc. In addition to testing the app in a full internet connectivity environment, cloud computing keeps other factors in account during testing like; testing in limited connectivity, high speed, without connectivity, and metered connectivity.

So, to make mobile app successful on various network environment, it is necessary that mobile app should perform consistently on various network environment.

5#. Manual Vs Automated Testing

Automation testing is really helpful and effective while doing regression testing (repeating test procedure again and again) and testing while developing and updating an application.

Effective automation testing tool is costly when you purchase it first time, but how much it returns is more than its cost. Automation testing is really helpful in case of regression testing.

But, all applications and their functionality can’t be tested by automation tools. For those applications and their functionality, manual testing process is suitable to test the mobile application effectively. Let’s see in which scenarios we can use automation tools,

  • When an application grows and develops frequently.
  • When frequency level of regression testing is high
  • When an application carries maximum number of functionality and test cases.
  • To confirm application compatibility with new OS version
  • Ensure backward compatibility when the application is promoted


To make the mobile application successful, we can’t ignore the importance of mobile application testing strategy, but it is uncertain that good strategy can deliver quality mobile app and can increase the performance of the mobile application. With good testing strategy, good target devices and testing methodologies should be there. In next Mobile Testing Tutorial series we are going to see Introduction to Mobile Application Testing . If you like this article then please share with your friends and colleagues and stay tuned for next article in this Tutorial series on Mobile Testing.

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Top Mobile Application Development Trends 2017 #application #development #trends


Top Mobile Application Development Trends for 2017

Mobile- A name that’s become so common among the modern age society. With over 6.4 billion devices which include (mobile, IoT, Wearables etc.) across the globe, the human race has become more and more adaptive and addictive to these applications run on mobile. Since 2016 is getting over, the world is expecting the trends apropos to every technological innovation in the upcoming year. Being an agile tech originator, we are also inquisitive about the latest trends in the mobile app developments. Here’s the rundown of the Top Mobile Application Development Trends for 2017.

UPI Payments and Online Wallets

Initiated and Backed by the Indian Government the UPI (Unified Payment Interface) Payment model will be the hottest topic for 2017. Every major sector will be having a watchful aspect on this as the demonetization has made a lasting impact on Indian Economy and made the country witness a severe cash crunch. As the Indian Govt. is planning to transform the traditional ways of transactions and willing to bring about the cashless economy, this Secure UPI will be having a significant role to play along with the Online Wallets which has made their ways in significant numbers to the people’s mobile with the inception of demonetizations. These online wallet transactions are not limited to the Indian Subcontinent but they are being used across a large part of the globe but yet they have their limitations.

Hence the world might witness an enormous expansion to these online wallets where the people will be allowed to make multi-dimensional expenses to fulfil a large sect of their daily needs.

Location Based Services (LBS)

Albeit the LBS have been running successfully throughout the map yet the world is willing to see the consistent rise in this sector as Location Based Services are providing the most appropriate solutions to all the questions in terms of delivery, indoor mapping and much more. Reportedly the tech-giants have made an expansive purchase of these LBS.

Since LBS is reported to drain the battery fast, hence the introduction of Beacon technology along with hardware development may bring about some positive changes to this hindrance of the app based service.

Amalgamation of AR into Utility Application

Apps that use Augmented Reality (AR) have long been viewed as gimmicky for promotional functions. However, over time, a bigger range of apps have started golf shot AR to a lot of helpful tasks still. With the addition of wearables into the image, AR tools are often used a lot of effectively and profitably than ever before. Therein context, recognition of words or phrases are some things that may be capitalised upon in traveller apps and also the like. If somebody sends a video, text, or audio with a selected catch phrase, a connected unjust item will appear.

Integration of AI into Apps To Be Common

Imagine a picture that changes dynamically in step with your moods or conditions. With additional developers facultative machine learning and AI into their apps, the implications of this will have an enormous impact on the approach during which the business works.

While photo filters area unit comparatively easier to form, developers may before long begin developing innovative ways in which self-learning apps may customise what they show to users supported their personal preferences or location-specific information. Conjointly called Neural Networks, such services will before the long shift from information centres to everyday devices like cameras, phones and IoT-enabled devices.

Introduction of Android Instant Apps

Google recently proclaimed its Instant Apps feature that delivers precisely what it guarantees – it permits golem apps to run instantly. Such enabled apps don t need to be downloaded or put in and might be run with simply one faucet. This “run-only-as-you-need” thought might amendment the app trade. Imagine conducting a groundwork so having a connected app turning informed the results page that may be run instantly while not installation.

No need to sit up for it to transfer, no need to use information to put in it and better of all, no usage of precious memory house on the phone to store it. Such apps square measure typically preview versions those with a couple of advanced options missing, however, they re excellent for a fast insight and knowledge.

Transformation of VR’s into Precise Reality

With the introduction of various Goliath-backed VR ventures, the fate of Virtual Reality seems to be changing in the coming year. As various globally recognised ventures are paying heed to the sector and reportedly several medical sectors are also seemed interested in utilising the VR for their highly advanced operations.

With the proclamation of Google’s Daydream project, Facebook energised Oculus Touch, HTC hive, VR seems final to have a promising fate.

IoT App Integrations To Continue Undisputed

The IoT business is in the middle of a significant boom immediately, and apps that cater to IoT and integrate the simplest can ride the wave the strongest. Industries within the fields of health, education, security, good homes, cars and a lot of have all started experimenting and integration with IoT advancements, therefore, keeping that in mind throughout the event of apps are an honest move in 2017.

For developers, such integrations can involve the usage of complicated mobile platforms and enterprise backend infrastructure that may communicate and share knowledge between all devices. Knowledge analytics additionally becomes key here since all the info that s keep and shared must be accessed simply and with efficiency.

Impact of Wearable Will Rise Up To A Bigger Extent

The World has already been witnessing the might of mobile applications and an overview of the wearable has already been depicted in the world. Be it an iWatch, a smartwatch or any other wearables. Mobile Apps will be transforming the user experience with more and more innovation that’s coming all the way to it.

The World might see an updated and advanced version of these wearable devices so that they can perform with the conjunction of mobile applications.


The proficiency of mobile application has been reciprocating with every passing day and the infusion of new innovations. The world’s becoming more and more dependent on these applications where the people find it easy to do their stuff with versatility. These innovations related to the mobile application developments will surely befit the world in every aspect with positive repercussions. Let’s watchful about what it will bring, apropos to tech, to the people around the world.

If you need to know more about mobile application development. please connect to our business representatives, they will brief you briskly.

Disclaimer:This blog has been framed and curated after proper research and development. We tried our level best to ensure the authenticity of information as correct, complete and accurate to the best of our knowledge. Despite our consistent efforts, we can’t assure that the information made available is complete, correct, accurate and updated. We advise our readers to take all their corporate decisions wisely not merely on the basis of this information. All the visuals used in this blog may or may not be the property of some companies or individuals, we don’t have any association with most of them.

Special Events Liability #insurance, #liability, #events, #party, #sporting #events, #general #liability, #event #host, #cgl, #liquor #liability, #party #insurance, #special #event, #function, #service #of #alcohol, #low #premium, #great #rates, #third #party #injury, #weddings, #meeting, #family #reunions, #festivals #street #party, #theatre, #film #shoot, #rodeo, #craft #show, #online #application, #canada, #short #term, #event #insurance, #


This program provides Event Hosts with protection in the event of lawsuits arising out of single/multi-day functions with or without service of alcohol.

Designed for
  • Hosts of single/multi day events who are seeking coverage (other than 1 day reception style event – ALL events with live entertainment or sports MUST be submitted on this form) OR
  • Hosts of single/multi day events where NO alcohol will be served (however, liquor extensions are available)

We offer limits of liability from $1,000,000.00 to $5,000,000.00 with deductibles from $1,000.00.

Coverage included: Commercial General Liability, including Third Party Property Damage/Bodily Injury, Medical Payment ($2,500.00pp/$25,000.00 max), Non-Owned Auto, Food and Beverage Product Coverage, Cross Liability, Employees/Volunteers as Additional Insured and Tenant’s Legal Liability ($500,000.00 +)


Are you running an exhibitor booth, vendor booth or kiosk at an event, flea market or mall?

Having a wedding?

You might want to look at our NEW Weddinguard package. It Includes three(3) 24 hour periods of liability coverage as well as cancellation coverage and much more. The cost is comparable to our Party Alcohol rates; be sure to check it out!

All other special events

Meetings, family reunions, music festivals, concerts, ball tournaments, street parties, conventions, film shoots, hockey tournaments, theatrical performances, youth dances, film festivals, camps, rodeos, craft shows and more.

Please note that we are unable to provide you with a quote for events more than 120 days inadvance.


Contact information

Please dial 1-800-265-8098 EXT: 828 or 1-800-661-1608 EXT 828 to reach a Special Events Underwriter

Future Students- Engineering, Architecture Programs and STEM Education #admissions, #future #students, #apply, #application, #engineering, #architecture, #stem #education, #detroit, #michigan, #freshman, #transfer, #graduate, #international, #laptop #program, #academic #programs, #



Welcome Future Students

Want to build a bridge? Design a car? Reimagine a green space? Create a business? Change the world?

Our helpful admissions staff can walk you through the process, point you to financial aid options and get you the full story on your area of interest. Send an email, give us a call, or schedule a visit and tour. Or, if you want to talk to a particular professor and learn more about an area of study, we can make that connection too.


A. Alfred Taubman Student Services Center

Office Hours

Contact Us

(248) 204-3160
(800) 225-5588


Lawrence Tech encourages students to be the ones who will blaze a new trail with the next great breakthrough idea. For starters you may want to schedule a campus tour or download the viewbook.


As a transfer student, you have had educational experiences at other institutions that have steered you down your chosen path. Some popular pages for Transfer Students are transfer guides and admissions requirements .


Have you thought about earning a graduate degree to increase your marketability? Our professors blend a student-centered approach to teaching with research and practical industry experiences to give graduate students a quality education. Browse the large variety of available graduate programs .


Lawrence Tech places great value on the diversity and global experiences students like you bring to the campus community. We are committed to developing students as responsible leaders and global citizens. Here is some information about obtaining your visa as well as an FAQ for international students .



Get Personalized Information Based on your Interests

Lawrence Technological University has created a personalized, easy-access web site for prospective students.

You can start by setting up your own VIP interest page. Based on your unique interests and needs, we will communicate directly with you about events and other important information you might like to know.

To create your VIP interest page, choose the level of admissions you are seeking:

How Can I Qualify for the US Open Golf Tournament, pga q school application.#Pga #q #school #application


How Can I Qualify to Play in the U.S. Open?

Pga q school application

So you want to play in the U.S. Open. What does it take to go through qualifying? What are the eligibility requirements and fees? Is it doable? It s certainly doable, assuming you meet those requirements and are willing to pony up the entry fees. So let s go over the U.S. Open qualifying process and how you—yes, you!—can enter a qualifier.

Eligibility Requirements to Enter a US Open Qualifier

U.S. Open qualifying events are open to those who meet one of the following requirements:

  • Any professional golfer is eligible to enter.
  • And any amateur golfer who has USGA men s handicap index of 1.4 or lower can enter U.S. Open qualifying.

The US Open Qualifying Process

Every year, the USGA stages qualifying events at more than 100 locations in the United States, plus a few international locations. The qualifying process is this:

  • Enter a local qualifier.
  • If you finish high enough, advance to a sectional qualifier.
  • If you finish high enough, advance into the U.S. Open.

Easy-peasy! Okay, not really easy, just simple to understand.

In 2016, local qualifiers were scheduled at 111 locations, all of them in the United States, in early to mid-May. Local qualifiers are 18 holes in length, played at stroke play. The number of golfers advancing out of each local qualifier is determined by field size; in 2016, a total of 525 golfers advanced out of local qualifying and into sectional qualifying.

The field at a local qualifier includes many club professionals, many highly skilled amateur golfers, and even some golfers with pro tour experience—perhaps even some current or recent PGA Tour pros whose status or recent accomplishments in pro golf do not allow them to skip the local qualifying stage.

Golfers who advance out of local qualifying move on to the sectional qualifiers, where they are also joined by golfers who were exempt from local qualifying. Sectional qualifiers are 36 holes (played in one day) of stroke play. In 2016, 12 sectional qualifiers were scheduled in the United States, plus one in Japan and another in England. The international sites played in late May; the domestic tournaments played in early June.

The field at a sectional qualifier may include many current PGA Tour golfers, even some major championship winners, along with touring professionals from other pro golf tours.

Those who make it through sectional qualifying join the final field for the U.S. Open, along with all the golfers who were exempt from any qualifying (a total of 156).

Applying to Play in a Local Qualifier (And Entry Fees)

Fill out an application and mail it in, or submit it online, along with payment for the entry fee. As long as you meet the entry requirements (professional or amateur with 1.4 handicap index or below), and you correctly fill out the entry form, you re in. (Although it should be noted that if you get in and then your score fails to meet a good play scoring threshold set by the USGA, any future applications on your part might be rejected.)

In 2016, the entry fee was $175. Entry forms are posted when they become available each year on the USGA website:

  • Go to
  • Click on the Championships tab, then select the Apply to Play option.
  • Find the info for the U.S. Open and proceed.

The entry deadline is usually in late April. Be sure to carefully read the rules and requirements in the informational PDF—the fine print—before submitting an entry form.

Application Fee and Fee Waiver #graduate #school #application #fees


Application Fee and Fee Waiver

Applicants will be required to pay the application fee or to request a fee waiver at the end of the online application.

Application fees as of September 1, 2016 can be found below:

U.S. Citizens Permanent Resident Applicants: $105.00

International Applicants: $125.00

Only U.S. citizens and permanent residents may request a waiver of the application fee. Applicants must provide supporting documentation within two weeks of the application submission date.

Applicants may qualify for a Fee Waiver upon verification of one of the following:

  • Need-Based Federal Aid – FAFSA report, Financial Aid Award Letter, or document posting Federal need-based aid.
  • Financial Hardship – Recent state or federal tax forms, exhibiting the number of dependents and the adjusted gross income or Federal 1040 forms. See the “Income Eligibility Guidelines” link for more information.
  • U.S. Military Service – Copy of DD 214 (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marines, Navy) or if active duty, send an email with your legal name, date of birth, and branch of service.
  • Graduate Prep Program Participation – UC San Diego provides a fee waiver for applicants who have participated in specific graduate programs. Note: Not all graduate preparation programs are eligible for the fee waiver. On the “Additional Information” page of the online application select the program in which you participated. The name and business email address of the program director are required for the UCSD Graduate Admissions staff to verify your participation. If this verification cannot be completed, you will be asked to provide additional information or pay the application fee.

Complete the online application. The option to request a fee waiver is provided before the official submission of your application.

Review the “Apply for Fee Waiver” section, sign, and submit. This action submits your final and official application to UCSD Graduate Admissions.

Check your email. A confirmation email with be sent with further instructions for submitting your verification.

Please note: Application Fee Waivers can only be processed after Steps 1 and 2 have been completed.