Symptoms and Signs of Drug Abuse: Warnings of Use and Addiction #drugs #addicted


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Symptoms and Signs of Drug Abuse

Recognizing the Signs of Abuse and Addiction

Drug abuse affects people from all walks of life and all socioeconomic statuses. Whatever the reason a person starts taking drugs, tolerance and dependency can develop quickly, before the user even realizes the pattern of addiction taking hold. When tolerance becomes full-blown addiction, it can be extremely difficult to stop the pattern of abuse.

Breaking free from the hold of addiction often requires outside help. Drug abuse wreaks havoc on the body and mind and can eventually kill. When you realize that you or someone you love has a problem, it’s essential to get help right away. If you or someone you know needs treatment for drug abuse. we can help.

Abuse of most substances will produce noticeable signs and symptoms. These may include physical or behavioral symptoms, most likely both.

Physical Symptoms

Some of the most noticeable symptoms of drug abuse are those that affect the body’s inner workings. For example, your body’s tolerance to a drug occurs when a drug is abused for long enough that increased quantities or strengths are required to achieve the previous effects. This desire for a more intense high, achieved through these means, is extremely dangerous and can easily lead to overdose.

The diminishing effects set in after the first time, and the user constantly tries to replicate the first high he or she gets from the drug by taking increasing amounts. This is extremely dangerous and can quickly lead to overdose.

Changes in appearance can be additional clues to possible drug use and may include:

  • Bloodshot or glazed eyes.
  • Dilated or constricted pupils.
  • Abrupt weight changes.
  • Bruises, infections, or other physical signs at the drug’s entrance site on the body.

Disruption to normal brain functioning, changes in personality, and heart and organ dysfunction can be signs of long-term drug abuse. Signs will vary based on the substance. Click on any drug above to learn more.

Behavioral Symptoms

Drug abuse negatively affects a person’s behavior and habits as he or she becomes more dependent on the drug. The drug itself can alter the brain’s ability to focus and form coherent thoughts. depending on the substance.

Changes in behavior, such as the following, can indicate a problem with drug abuse:

  • Increased aggression or irritability.
  • Changes in attitude/personality.
  • Lethargy.
  • Depression.
  • Sudden changes in a social network.
  • Dramatic changes in habits and/or priorities.
  • Financial problems.
  • Involvement in criminal activity.

Learning to recognize the physical or behavioral signs of drug abuse can help prevent the problem from progressing further.

Sources:

Learn The Signs of Illicit Drug Abuse Click on any substance below to find out the typical signs and symptoms of abuse and addiction that substance and how to find help. Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Crack Crystal Meth Date Rape Drugs DMT Ecstasy Hallucinogens Hashish Heroin Inhalant Ketamine Kratom Krokodil LSD Marijuana Meth Mushrooms MXE PCP

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Alcohol

Getting the Facts

Just about everyone knows that the legal drinking age throughout the United States is 21. But according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, almost 80% of high school students have tried alcohol.

Deciding whether to drink is a personal decision that we each eventually have to make. This article provides some information on alcohol, including how it affects your body, so you can make an educated choice.

What Is Alcohol?

Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented. Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items everything from cheese to medications. Alcohol has different forms and can be used as a cleaner, an antiseptic, or a sedative.

So if alcohol is a natural product, why do teens need to be concerned about drinking it? When people drink alcohol, it’s absorbed into their bloodstream. From there, it affects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), which controls virtually all body functions. Because experts now know that the human brain is still developing during our teens, scientists are researching the effects drinking alcohol can have on the teen brain.

How Does It Affect the Body?

Alcohol is a depressant. which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain. This alters a person’s perceptions, emotions, movement, vision, and hearing.

In very small amounts, alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed or less anxious. More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication. People who have overused alcohol may stagger, lose their coordination, and slur their speech. They will probably be confused and disoriented. Depending on the person, intoxication can make someone very friendly and talkative or very aggressive and angry. Reaction times are slowed dramatically which is why people are told not to drink and drive. People who are intoxicated may think they’re moving properly when they’re not. They may act totally out of character.

When large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period of time, alcohol poisoning can result. Alcohol poisoning is exactly what it sounds like the body has become poisoned by large amounts of alcohol. Violent vomiting is usually the first symptom of alcohol poisoning. Extreme sleepiness, unconsciousness, difficulty breathing, dangerously low blood sugar, seizures, and even death may result.

Why Do Teens Drink?

Experimentation with alcohol during the teen years is common. Some reasons that teens use alcohol and other drugs are:

  • curiosity
  • to feel good, reduce stress, and relax
  • to fit in
  • to feel older

From a very young age, kids see advertising messages showing beautiful people enjoying life and alcohol. And because many parents and other adults use alcohol socially having beer or wine with dinner, for example alcohol seems harmless to many teens.

Why Shouldn’t I Drink?

Although it’s illegal to buy alcohol in the United States until the age of 21, most teens can get access to it. It’s therefore up to you to make a decision about drinking. In addition to the possibility of becoming addicted, there are some downsides to drinking:

The punishment is severe. Teens who drink put themselves at risk for obvious problems with the law (it’s illegal; you can get arrested). Teens who drink are also more likely to get into fights and commit crimes than those who don’t.

People who drink regularly also often have problems with school. Drinking can damage a student’s ability to study well and get decent grades, as well as affect sports performance (the coordination thing).

You can look really stupid. The impression is that drinking is cool, but the nervous system changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover.

Alcohol puts your health at risk. Teens who drink are more likely to be sexually active and to have unsafe, unprotected sex. Resulting pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases can change or even end lives. The risk of injuring yourself, maybe even fatally, is higher when you’re under the influence, too. One half of all drowning deaths among teen guys are related to alcohol use. Use of alcohol greatly increases the chance that a teen will be involved in a car crash, homicide, or suicide.

Teen drinkers are more likely to get fat or have health problems, too. One study by the University of Washington found that people who regularly had five or more drinks in a row starting at age 13 were much more likely to be overweight or have high blood pressure by age 24 than their nondrinking peers. People who continue drinking heavily well into adulthood risk damaging their organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain.

How Can I Avoid Drinking?

If all your friends drink and you don’t want to, it can be hard to say “no, thanks.” No one wants to risk feeling rejected or left out. Different strategies for turning down alcohol work for different people. Some people find it helps to say no without giving an explanation, others think offering their reasons works better (“I’m not into drinking,” “I have a game tomorrow,” or “my uncle died from drinking,” for example).

If saying no to alcohol makes you feel uncomfortable in front of people you know, blame your parents or another adult for your refusal. Saying, “My parents are coming to pick me up soon,” “I already got in major trouble for drinking once, I can’t do it again,” or “my coach would kill me,” can make saying no a bit easier for some.

If you’re going to a party and you know there will be alcohol, plan your strategy in advance. You and a friend can develop a signal for when it’s time to leave, for example. You can also make sure that you have plans to do something besides just hanging out in someone’s basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, the mall, a concert, or a sports event. You might also organize your friends into a volleyball, bowling, or softball team any activity that gets you moving.

Girls or guys who have strong self-esteem are less likely to become problem drinkers than people with low self-esteem.

Where Can I Get Help?

If you think you have a drinking problem, get help as soon as possible. The best approach is to talk to an adult you trust. If you can’t approach your parents, talk to your doctor, school counselor, clergy member, aunt, or uncle. It can be hard for some people to talk to adults about these issues, but a supportive person in a position to help can refer students to a drug and alcohol counselor for evaluation and treatment.

In some states, this treatment is completely confidential. After assessing a teen’s problem, a counselor may recommend a brief stay in rehab or outpatient treatment. These treatment centers help a person gradually overcome the physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.

What If I’m Concerned About Someone Else’s Drinking?

Sometimes people live in homes where a parent or other family member drinks too much. This may make you angry, scared, and depressed. Many people can’t control their drinking without help. This doesn’t mean that they love or care about you any less. Alcoholism is an illness that needs to be treated just like other illnesses.

People with drinking problems can’t stop drinking until they are ready to admit they have a problem and get help. This can leave family members and loved ones feeling helpless. The good news is there are many places to turn for help: a supportive adult, such as your guidance counselor, or a relative or older sibling will understand what you’re going through. Also, professional organizations like Alateen can help.

If you have a friend whose drinking concerns you, make sure he or she stays safe. Don’t let your friend drink and drive, for example. If you can, try to keep friends who have been drinking from doing anything dangerous, such as trying to walk home at night alone or starting a fight. And protect yourself, too. Don’t get in a car with someone who’s been drinking, even if that person is your ride home. Ask a sober adult to drive you instead or call a cab.

Everyone makes decisions about whether to drink and how much even adults. It’s possible to enjoy a party or other event just as much, if not more so, when you don’t drink. And with your central nervous system working as it’s supposed to, you’ll remember more about the great time you had!

Date reviewed: September 2016


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Treatment for Spinal Compression Fractures

If osteoporosis has caused a spinal compression fracture. the treatment should address the pain, the fracture, and the underlying osteoporosis to prevent future fractures .

All components of treatment have improved greatly in the last decade, says Michael Schaufele, MD, a physiatrist and professor of orthopaedics at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. “We have better interventional options to treat fractures and better treatments to prevent future fractures,” he tells WebMD.

The majority of fractures heal with pain medication, reduction in activity, medications to stabilize bone density, and a good back brace to minimize motion during the healing process. Most people return to their everyday activities. Some may need further treatment, such as surgery.

Nonsurgical Treatment for Spinal Compression Fractures

Pain from a spinal compression fracture allowed to heal naturally can last as long as three months. But the pain usually improves significantly in a matter of days or weeks.

Pain medications. A carefully prescribed “cocktail” of pain medications can relieve bone-on-bone, muscle, and nerve pain. explains F. Todd Wetzel, MD, professor of orthopaedics and neurosurgery at Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia. “If it’s prescribed correctly, you can reduce doses of the individual drugs in the cocktail.”

Over-the-counter pain medications are often sufficient in relieving pain. Two types of non-prescription medications — acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs ) — are recommended. Narcotic pain medications and muscle relaxants are often prescribed for short periods of time, since there is risk of addiction. Antidepressants can also help relieve nerve-related pain.

Activity modification. Bed rest may help with acute pain, but it can also lead to further bone loss and worsening osteoporosis. which raises your risk for future compression fractures. Doctors may recommend a short period of bed rest for no more than a few days. However, prolonged inactivity should be avoided.

Back bracing. A back brace provides external support to limit the motion of fractured vertebrae — much like applying a cast on a broken wrist. The rigid style of a back brace limits spine-related motion significantly, which may help reduce pain. Newer elastic braces and corsets are more comfortable to wear but don’t work, says Wetzel. “There’s an old saying, ‘The inconvenience of the brace is directly proportional to its effectiveness,'” he tells WebMD. However, braces should be used cautiously and only under a doctor’s supervision. Weakening and loss of muscle can occur with excessive use of braces for lumbar conditions.

Osteoporosis treatment. Bone-strengthening drugs such as bisphosphonates (such as Actonel. Boniva, and Fosamax ) help stabilize or restore bone loss. This is a critical part of treatment to help prevent further compression fractures.

Continued

Surgical Treatment for Spinal Compression Fractures

When chronic pain from a spinal compression fracture persists despite rest, activity modification, back bracing, and pain medication, surgery is the next step. Surgical procedures used to treat spinal fractures are:

Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty

These procedures for spinal compression fractures involve small, minimally invasive incisions, so they require very little healing time. They also use acrylic bone cement that hardens quickly, stabilizing the spinal bone fragments and therefore stabilizing the spine immediately. Most patients go home the same day or after one night’s hospital stay.

Vertebroplasty. This procedure is effective for relieving pain from spinal compression fractures and helping to stabilize the fracture. During this procedure:

  • A needle is inserted into the damaged vertebrae.
  • X-rays help ensure that it’s done with accuracy.
  • The doctor injects a bone cement mixture into the fractured vertebrae.
  • The cement mixture hardens in about 10 minutes.
  • The patient typically goes home the same day or after a one-night hospital stay.

Kyphoplasty. This procedure helps correct the bone deformity and relieves the pain associated with spinal compression fractures. During the procedure:

  • A tube is inserted through a half inch cut in the back into the damaged vertebrae. X-rays help ensure the accuracy of the procedure.
  • A thin catheter tube — with a balloon at the tip — is guided into the vertebra.
  • The balloon is inflated to create a cavity in which liquid bone cement is injected.
  • The balloon is then deflated and removed, and bone cement is injected into the cavity.
  • The cement mixture hardens in about 10 minutes.

“These procedures are amazing, when you look at how well patients do,” says Rex Marco, MD, chief of spine surgery and musculoskeletal oncology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. “They’re often in terrible, terrible pain, and it’s not going away. But with two small incisions we can take care of something that needed a huge operation in the past but without really good results.”

“We do everything we can to make the operation go as smoothly as possible,” says Marco. “Antibiotics decrease the chance of infection. And a special x-ray machine helps us get the needle into the bone and assure that cement goes into the bone and stays in the bone.”

Continued

Spinal Fusion Surgery

Spinal fusion surgery is sometimes used for spinal compression fractures to eliminate motion between two vertebrae and relieve pain. The procedure connects two or more vertebrae together, holds them in the correct position, and keeps them from moving until they have a chance to grow together, or fuse.

Metal screws are placed through a small tube of bone and into the vertebrae. The screws are attached to metal plates or metal rods that are bolted together in the back of the spine. The hardware holds the vertebrae in place. This stops movement, allowing the vertebrae to fuse. Bone is grafted into the spaces between vertebrae.

“Spinal fusion is often the last resort,” Wetzel tells WebMD. “If the bone is more than 50% compressed in height, if patients are in a great deal of pain, and if they have had complications from another spinal surgery, we suggest spinal fusion surgery.”

The patient’s own bone or bone from a bone bank can be used to create a graft. The patient’s own bone marrow or blood platelets — or a bio-engineered molecule — can be used to stimulate growth of bone for the procedure.

Recovery from spinal fusion surgery takes longer than with other types of spinal surgery. Patients often have a three- or four-day hospital stay, with a possible stay on a rehabilitation unit. Patients typically wear a brace immediately after surgery. Rehabilitation is often necessary to rebuild strength and functioning. Activity level is gradually increased. Depending on the patient’s age and health status, getting back to normal functioning can happen within two months or up to six months later.

There are drawbacks to spinal fusion surgery. It eliminates the natural movement of the two vertebrae, which limits the person’s movement. Also, it puts more stress on vertebrae next to the fusion – increasing the chance of fracture in those vertebrae. Even after healing is complete, patients may need to avoid certain lifting and twisting activities to prevent putting excess stress on the spine.

“But if someone has persistent pain from the fracture and they have been aggressively treated for osteoporosis they can do very well with spinal fusion,” says Wetzel.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Ross Brakeville, DPT on January 21, 2017

Sources

Michael Schaufele, MD, physiatrist and professor of orthopaedics at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta.

Rex Marco, MD, chief of spine surgery and musculoskeletal oncology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

F. Todd Wetzel, MD, professor of orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery at Temple University School of Medicine.

The North American Spine Society.

National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise: “Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for compression fractures of the spine.”

The Arthritis Foundation, Bulletin on the Rhuematic Diseases vol 52.

University of Maryland Spine Center: “A Patient’s Guide to Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.”

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

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#arthritis, #rockland #county, #rofecoxib #side #effects, #serious #injuries, #severe #head #injury, #spastic #cerebral #palsy, #spinal #cord #injury #law, #staten #island, #staten #island #brain #injury #attorneys, #staten #island #lawyers, #staten #island #malpractice #attorneys, #stroke, #suconjunctival #hemorrhage, #suffolk #county, #suffolk #county #medical #malpractice #attorneys, #surgical #error, #terfenadine, #topamax, #traffic #accidents, #traumatic #brain #injury #lawyers, #truck #accidents #in #new #york #new #york, #umbilical #cord #entrapment, #unprofessional #conduct, #unsafe #building #attorney #manhattan, #unsafe #building #attorney #new #york, #vioxx, #vioxx #attorneys, #vioxx #lawyers, #vioxx #side #effects, #vioxx #side #effects #attorneys, #vioxx #side #effects #lawyers, #westchester #county, #what #is #a #fracture, #white #plains, #white #plains, #white #plains #bone #fracture #attorneys, #white #plains #injury #lawyers, #white #plains #new #york, #work #accident #compensation, #work #injury #info, #work #place #injury, #work #related #back #injury, #work #related #injury, #wrongful #death, #wrongful #death #attorneys, #wrongful #death #lawyers #in #new #york


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The Turkewitz Law Firm

The Turkewitz Law Firm s Cases of Note

  • $7M settlement for woman brain damaged during childbirth, who subsequently died.
  • $3.45M for Brooklyn Medical Malpractice – Brain Damage After Surgery
  • $1,300,000 verdict from structural collapse of metal grate causing broken wrist and badly broken ankle. This premises liability matter was the subject of two trials in federal court (2010 and 2012) and an appeal to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals (2013).
  • $1.87M for Brooklyn medical malpractice victim – nerve injury and stroke following liposuction
  • $2.5M for a breach of partnership agreement in a Manhattan law firm
  • $1.49M in New York medical malpractice case – amputated leg
  • $3.07M structured payment in Brooklyn due to Erb�s Palsy birth injury from medical malpractice, injuring the brachial plexus
  • $1.475M – Bronx Car Accident, Fractured Hip
  • $1.2M. Queens Medical Malpractice, Injury from Surgery
  • $1.295M in Bronx medical malpractice case – failure to diagnose an impending stroke
  • $2.2M structured payment to Queens child due to birth injury
  • $1.015M – New York medical malpractice – surgical drain errantly left knee, infection, multiple surgeries and leg fusion
  • More cases

Admissions to Practice

State of New York

U.S. District Courts:
Southern District of New York
Eastern District of New York

United States Court of Appeals: Second Circuit
Eleventh Circuit

Professional Memberships

American Bar Association

New York State Trial Lawyers Association

American Association for Justice

Eric Turkewitz has tried personal injury cases to verdict in New York, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester, Rockland, Dutchess and Albany counties.

If you are looking for a personal injury attorney it’s probably because you’ve been seriously hurt by the negligence of others. On the other side is a person or company, represented by insurance company lawyers, that is resisting the obligation to provide fair compensation for the injuries. Personal injury lawyers seek to level the playing field so that individuals have their cases heard in court on equal footing with those multi-billion dollar corporations.

We believe in personal responsibility. If people or companies injure others through negligence they should be accountable for the losses. That is fair, that is just, and that accountability not only provides for the needs of the injured but also makes our communities safer.

This firm, therefore, is dedicated to helping accident and medical malpractice victims gain fair compensation for their injuries. Eric Turkewitz, the firm’s founder and principal trial attorney, has argued for over 25 years in front of judges and juries for just that purpose. For eight years in a row, 2009-2016, he was selected by Super Lawyers Magazine. as one of the top 5% of personal injury attorneys in New York.

Over the years, we have litigated numerous cases of:

Some of the more interesting cases that were favorably settled or went to verdict are in the Cases of Note section, or in the right sidebar. The summaries are published here for your reference to show the nature of the claims, the nature of the defenses, and the ultimate recovery. Since no two cases will be exactly the same, you should understand that these are mere examples.

Over the years, Mr. Turkewitz has examined hundreds of medical witnesses under oath in New York court proceedings, litigating across a wide spectrum of medical specialties. He has done this both for his own firm as well as for other attorneys that have sought him out.

Mr. Turkewitz also represented victims of the September 11 attack as a member of Trial Lawyers Care. the largest free legal services project in American history.

The cases we accept are often complex and time consuming. Defendants will often do everything possible to slow the legal process. This necessitates being highly selective in deciding which cases to undertake.

Consultations and Access

The firm provides a consultation at no charge. As needed, we speak with witnesses, obtain records, and consult with experts that are specialists with outstanding credentials in their fields, in order to determine if a suit should be brought. The firm generally covers the New York counties of Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, Nassau, Westchester, Suffolk, Rockland, Putnam, Dutchess, Orange and Albany. For serious cases we will travel elsewhere.

How to Choose a Lawyer

If you are in need of a lawyer and that’s the only logical reason to be on this site here are some things to consider:

The New York Personal Injury Law Blog

The Turkewitz Law Firm also sponsors the New York Personal Injury Law Blog to discuss issues of medical malpractice, personal injury, appellate decisions, cases of interest in the press, and public policy regarding the justice system.

In July 2008, ALM (American Legal Media) publisher of the New York Law Journal. American Lawyer and the National Law Journal among its many publications added the blog to its roster of 30 affiliated blogs at Law.com. Turkewitz’s publication thus became the first personal injury blog in the nation to become affiliated with Law.com.

In November 2008 the American Bar Association Journal. read by half the nation’s one million lawyers, selected the New York Personal Injury Law Blog as one of the nation’s top 100 law blogs. It was the only plaintiff’s oriented personal injury blog in the country to receive this honor. The New York Personal Injury Law Blog was honored again in 2009 as one of the top law 100 blogs, for a third time in 2010. a fourth time in 2011. and a fifth time in 2012. At this point his law blog was inducted into the American Bar Association’s new Blawg Hall of Fame . one of only 10 law blogs in the nation to be so honored.

About This Website

This website is the firm’s electronic brochure, a form of attorney advertising. You only found this site because you looked for us. We do not engage in television, radio, print, mail or spam email-advertising campaigns of any kind. Frankly, we find many of them somewhat offensive. Mr. Turkewitz does, however sponsor his son’s youth baseball team. Because that kind of advertising we like. You can read more about our views on attorney advertising here .

Throughout this site you will see examples of cases we have handled. Since all cases are different, and legal authority may change from year to year, it is important to remember that prior results cannot, and do not, guarantee or predict similar outcomes with respect to any future matter, including yours, in which any lawyer or law firm may be retained.


Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) Medicines Review – Consumer Reports #heartburn, #gerd, #acid #reflux, #gastric #ulcers, #over #the #counter #drugs, #prevent #heartburn, #proton #pump #inhibitors, #acid #reducing #drugs, #prevacid, #zegerid, #prilosec, #health, #drugs


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Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) medicines review

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of very effective and generally safe medicines used to treat heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and gastric ulcers.But not everyone who experiences heartburn needs one.

Several of the PPIs have been widely advertised to consumers and heavily promoted to physicians, and this has led to an overuse of the drugs in the treatment of garden-variety heartburn. PPIs are among the highest-selling classes of drugs in the U.S. with $9.5 billion in sales last year, and one of them, Nexium, was the top-selling of all drugs, earning nearly $6 billion in 2012, according to IMS Health, which tracks drug sales and marketing.

If you suffer from occasional heartburn and have not been diagnosed with GERD, nonprescription antacids such as Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, and Tums, or acid-reducing drugs known as H2 blockers, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid), and ranitidine (Zantac) will very likely provide relief. All of those products are available without a prescription as low-cost generics.

Talk with your doctor about the role that dietary and lifestyle changes can play in alleviating heartburn, too, such as eating smaller meals and not lying down for at least three hours after eating, losing weight if you need to, and avoiding alcohol. If, however, you experience heartburn twice a week or more for weeks or months on end, have frequent regurgitation of food into your throat or mouth (with or without heartburn), or if your heartburn is not relieved by the drugs mentioned above, you may have GERD and may need a PPI. GERD is a condition that makes you prone to acid reflux and, over time, can cause damage to your esophagus.

The seven available PPI medicines are roughly equal in effectiveness and safety but differ in cost. Three—omeprazole (Prilosec, Prilosec OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Prevacid 24HR), and omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid, Zegerid OTC)—are available as both prescription and nonprescription drugs. Four—lansoprazole, omeprazole, omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate, and pantoprazole (Protonix)—are available as both brand-name drugs and generics that contain the same active ingredient but cost significantly less.

Taking the evidence for effectiveness, safety, cost, and other factors into account, if you need a PPI, we have chosen the following as Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs :

  • Generic omeprazole OTC
  • Generic lansoprazole OTC

Download

These materials are made possible by a grant from the state Attorney General Consumer and Prescriber Education Grant Program, which is funded by the multi-state settlement of consumer-fraud claims regarding the marketing of the prescription drug Neurontin (gabapentin).


Drug Expiration Dates – Are Expired Drugs Still Safe to Take? #dating #e


#date side

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Drug Expiration Dates – Are They Still Safe to Take?

Patients often have questions about drug expiration dates: Can they take a medication if it has reached the drug expiration date? Are there recommendations about the best way to store medications? Are there certain drugs that should never be used past their expiration date? For many patients, these questions arise because medications can be expensive, and it is costly to frequently replace expired but unused medications.

What does an expiration date mean?

The expiration date is the final day that the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of a medication. Drug expiration dates exist on most medication labels, including prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) and dietary (herbal) supplements. U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers are required by law to place expiration dates on prescription products prior to marketing. For legal and liability reasons, manufacturers will not make recommendations about the stability of drugs past the original expiration date. 1

The expiration date of a drug is estimated using stability testing under good manufacturing practices as determined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drug products marketed in the US typically have an expiration that extends from 12 to 60 months from the time of manufacturer. Once the original container is opened, either by the patient or the health care provider who will dispense the drug, that original expiration date on the container can no longer be relied upon. 2 However, the actual shelf life of the drug may be much longer, as stability studies have shown. 3

At the pharmacy, “beyond-use” dates are often put on the prescription bottle label given to the patient. These dates often say “do not use after. ” or “discard after. ” and are required by the Board of Pharmacy in many states. These dates are typically one year from the date on the stock bottle. But why would these expiration dates be different? According to the manufacturer, the stability of a drug cannot be guaranteed once the original bottle is opened. Therefore, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the body that sets the standards for pharmaceutical quality in the U.S. recommends using “beyond use” dates. The “beyond use” date would never be later than the expiration date on the manufacturer’s bottle. 4

Do expired medications lose their potency?

The American Medical Association (AMA) concluded in 2001 that the actual shelf life of some products is longer than the labeled expiration date. The AMA stated the best evidence resides in the Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) undertaken by the FDA for the Department of Defense. 2 The original purpose of the SLEP program was twofold: to determine the actual shelf life of stockpiled military medications for future use, and to save government dollars. 5 Over 3000 lots, representing 122 different drug products, were assessed in the SLEP program. Based on stability data, expiration dates on 88 percent of the lots were extended beyond their original expiration date for an average of 66 months. Of these 2652 lots, only 18 percent were terminated due to failure. Examples of common drug products that were tested with no failures included amoxicillin. ciprofloxacin. diphenhydramine. and morphine sulfate injection. Drug expiration extension dates on these products ranged from 12 to 184 months.

These results suggest that many drug products may have extended shelf lives beyond their expiration date. However, it is difficult for any one consumer or health care provider to know which product could have an extended shelf life. The ability for a drug to have an extended shelf life would be dependent upon the actual drug ingredients, presence of preservatives, temperature fluctuations, light, humidity, and other storage conditions. Additionally, the drug lots tested in the SLEP program were kept in their original packaging. Once a drug is repackaged into another container, as often happens in the pharmacy, the shelf-life might decline. 3

Is it safe to take expired medications?

There are no specific reports linking expired medication use to human toxicity. In 1963, a report was published that tied degraded tetracycline use with a form of renal tubular damage known as “Fanconi Syndrome”; however, that formulation of tetracycline in no longer marketed in the U.S. 1

Solid dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules, appear to be most stable past their expiration date. Drugs that exist in solution or as a reconstituted suspension, and that require refrigeration (such as amoxicillin suspension ), may not have the required potency if used when outdated. Loss of potency can be a major health concern, especially when treating an infection with an antibiotic. Additionally, antibiotic resistance may occur with sub-potent medications. Drugs that exist in solution, especially injectable drugs, should be discarded if the product forms a precipitant or looks cloudy or discolored. 1

EpiPen autoinjectors should not be used after the expiration date as the epinephrine has been shown to lose its potency. 1 Epipen’s are used in life-threatening situations like anaphylaxis. so there is a major health threat with an expired EpiPen. 6 Expired medications that contain preservatives, such as ophthalmic (eye) drops, may be unsafe past their expiration date. 1 Outdated preservatives may allow bacterial growth in the solution.

Insulin is used to control blood sugar in diabetes and may be susceptible to degradation after its expiration date. Oral nitroglycerin (NTG). a medication used for angina (chest pain), may lose its potency quickly once the medication bottle is opened. Vaccines. biologicals or blood products could also be subject to quick degradation once the expiration date is reached. If a patient finds a medication is powdery or crumbling, has a strong smell, or has dried up (as in the case of or ointments or creams), these drugs should be discarded. 7

Proper storage of medications may help to extend their potency. The bathroom and medicine cabinet are not ideal places to store medications due to heat and humidity. Similarly, medications should not be left in a hot car. Medications remain most stable in dry, cool spaces away from light. Keep the prescription bottle caps tightly closed and always keep medications out of reach of children and pets.

What is the bottom line?

Should patients use expired medications or not? If a medication is needed, and the patient is not able to replace the expired medication, there is no evidence that it is unsafe to take the medication in most cases. 1 However, if a medication is essential for a chronic and potentially life-threatening disease, for example, a heart condition, seizure, or life-threatening allergy, it is probably wise to get a new prescription once expired.

If an expired medication is for a minor health problem, for example, for a headache, hayfever, or mild pain, it may also be safe to take it, although drug potency might not be 100 percent. Research has shown many military stockpile medications retained 90 percent of their potency in their original stock bottle. 3 However, storage conditions of these medications were optimized for temperature and humidity, and probably do not mimic the typical storage conditions of the average household prescription bottle.

If an expired medication is taken, and the patient notices the drug has limited or no therapeutic effect, the medication should be replaced. If the medication is a biologic product, insulin, EpiPen, refrigerated liquid, eye drop, injectable, or looks like it is degraded or cloudy, it should be discarded and replaced. If questions still remain about how to handle an expired medication, it is wise to speak with your pharmacist or physician, who can offer additional information and advice. 1

Recommended for you

Sources

1. Anon. Drugs Past Their Expiration Date. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2009;51:101-102.

2. American Medical Association. “Pharmaceutical Expiration Dates.” Report 1 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-01). July 25, 2001. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/csaph/csaa-01.pdf

3. Lyon RC, Taylor JS, Porter DA, et al. Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labeled expiration dates. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:1549-60.

4. American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP.org). Q A on Proposed USP Chapter 797 Revisions with E. Clyde Buchanan.

5. Woods M. Drugs may outlast label date. Post-Gazette National Bureau. May 30, 2005. Accessed Nov. 17. 2011.

6. Simons FER, et al. Outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors: past their prime? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:1025


Drug Expiration Dates – Are Expired Drugs Still Safe to Take? #asian #brides


#date side

#

Drug Expiration Dates – Are They Still Safe to Take?

Patients often have questions about drug expiration dates: Can they take a medication if it has reached the drug expiration date? Are there recommendations about the best way to store medications? Are there certain drugs that should never be used past their expiration date? For many patients, these questions arise because medications can be expensive, and it is costly to frequently replace expired but unused medications.

What does an expiration date mean?

The expiration date is the final day that the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of a medication. Drug expiration dates exist on most medication labels, including prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) and dietary (herbal) supplements. U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers are required by law to place expiration dates on prescription products prior to marketing. For legal and liability reasons, manufacturers will not make recommendations about the stability of drugs past the original expiration date. 1

The expiration date of a drug is estimated using stability testing under good manufacturing practices as determined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drug products marketed in the US typically have an expiration that extends from 12 to 60 months from the time of manufacturer. Once the original container is opened, either by the patient or the health care provider who will dispense the drug, that original expiration date on the container can no longer be relied upon. 2 However, the actual shelf life of the drug may be much longer, as stability studies have shown. 3

At the pharmacy, “beyond-use” dates are often put on the prescription bottle label given to the patient. These dates often say “do not use after. ” or “discard after. ” and are required by the Board of Pharmacy in many states. These dates are typically one year from the date on the stock bottle. But why would these expiration dates be different? According to the manufacturer, the stability of a drug cannot be guaranteed once the original bottle is opened. Therefore, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the body that sets the standards for pharmaceutical quality in the U.S. recommends using “beyond use” dates. The “beyond use” date would never be later than the expiration date on the manufacturer’s bottle. 4

Do expired medications lose their potency?

The American Medical Association (AMA) concluded in 2001 that the actual shelf life of some products is longer than the labeled expiration date. The AMA stated the best evidence resides in the Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) undertaken by the FDA for the Department of Defense. 2 The original purpose of the SLEP program was twofold: to determine the actual shelf life of stockpiled military medications for future use, and to save government dollars. 5 Over 3000 lots, representing 122 different drug products, were assessed in the SLEP program. Based on stability data, expiration dates on 88 percent of the lots were extended beyond their original expiration date for an average of 66 months. Of these 2652 lots, only 18 percent were terminated due to failure. Examples of common drug products that were tested with no failures included amoxicillin. ciprofloxacin. diphenhydramine. and morphine sulfate injection. Drug expiration extension dates on these products ranged from 12 to 184 months.

These results suggest that many drug products may have extended shelf lives beyond their expiration date. However, it is difficult for any one consumer or health care provider to know which product could have an extended shelf life. The ability for a drug to have an extended shelf life would be dependent upon the actual drug ingredients, presence of preservatives, temperature fluctuations, light, humidity, and other storage conditions. Additionally, the drug lots tested in the SLEP program were kept in their original packaging. Once a drug is repackaged into another container, as often happens in the pharmacy, the shelf-life might decline. 3

Is it safe to take expired medications?

There are no specific reports linking expired medication use to human toxicity. In 1963, a report was published that tied degraded tetracycline use with a form of renal tubular damage known as “Fanconi Syndrome”; however, that formulation of tetracycline in no longer marketed in the U.S. 1

Solid dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules, appear to be most stable past their expiration date. Drugs that exist in solution or as a reconstituted suspension, and that require refrigeration (such as amoxicillin suspension ), may not have the required potency if used when outdated. Loss of potency can be a major health concern, especially when treating an infection with an antibiotic. Additionally, antibiotic resistance may occur with sub-potent medications. Drugs that exist in solution, especially injectable drugs, should be discarded if the product forms a precipitant or looks cloudy or discolored. 1

EpiPen autoinjectors should not be used after the expiration date as the epinephrine has been shown to lose its potency. 1 Epipen’s are used in life-threatening situations like anaphylaxis. so there is a major health threat with an expired EpiPen. 6 Expired medications that contain preservatives, such as ophthalmic (eye) drops, may be unsafe past their expiration date. 1 Outdated preservatives may allow bacterial growth in the solution.

Insulin is used to control blood sugar in diabetes and may be susceptible to degradation after its expiration date. Oral nitroglycerin (NTG). a medication used for angina (chest pain), may lose its potency quickly once the medication bottle is opened. Vaccines. biologicals or blood products could also be subject to quick degradation once the expiration date is reached. If a patient finds a medication is powdery or crumbling, has a strong smell, or has dried up (as in the case of or ointments or creams), these drugs should be discarded. 7

Proper storage of medications may help to extend their potency. The bathroom and medicine cabinet are not ideal places to store medications due to heat and humidity. Similarly, medications should not be left in a hot car. Medications remain most stable in dry, cool spaces away from light. Keep the prescription bottle caps tightly closed and always keep medications out of reach of children and pets.

What is the bottom line?

Should patients use expired medications or not? If a medication is needed, and the patient is not able to replace the expired medication, there is no evidence that it is unsafe to take the medication in most cases. 1 However, if a medication is essential for a chronic and potentially life-threatening disease, for example, a heart condition, seizure, or life-threatening allergy, it is probably wise to get a new prescription once expired.

If an expired medication is for a minor health problem, for example, for a headache, hayfever, or mild pain, it may also be safe to take it, although drug potency might not be 100 percent. Research has shown many military stockpile medications retained 90 percent of their potency in their original stock bottle. 3 However, storage conditions of these medications were optimized for temperature and humidity, and probably do not mimic the typical storage conditions of the average household prescription bottle.

If an expired medication is taken, and the patient notices the drug has limited or no therapeutic effect, the medication should be replaced. If the medication is a biologic product, insulin, EpiPen, refrigerated liquid, eye drop, injectable, or looks like it is degraded or cloudy, it should be discarded and replaced. If questions still remain about how to handle an expired medication, it is wise to speak with your pharmacist or physician, who can offer additional information and advice. 1

Recommended for you

Sources

1. Anon. Drugs Past Their Expiration Date. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2009;51:101-102.

2. American Medical Association. “Pharmaceutical Expiration Dates.” Report 1 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-01). July 25, 2001. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/csaph/csaa-01.pdf

3. Lyon RC, Taylor JS, Porter DA, et al. Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labeled expiration dates. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:1549-60.

4. American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP.org). Q A on Proposed USP Chapter 797 Revisions with E. Clyde Buchanan.

5. Woods M. Drugs may outlast label date. Post-Gazette National Bureau. May 30, 2005. Accessed Nov. 17. 2011.

6. Simons FER, et al. Outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors: past their prime? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:1025


Drug Expiration Dates – Are Expired Drugs Still Safe to Take? #dating #search


#date side

#

Drug Expiration Dates – Are They Still Safe to Take?

Patients often have questions about drug expiration dates: Can they take a medication if it has reached the drug expiration date? Are there recommendations about the best way to store medications? Are there certain drugs that should never be used past their expiration date? For many patients, these questions arise because medications can be expensive, and it is costly to frequently replace expired but unused medications.

What does an expiration date mean?

The expiration date is the final day that the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of a medication. Drug expiration dates exist on most medication labels, including prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) and dietary (herbal) supplements. U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers are required by law to place expiration dates on prescription products prior to marketing. For legal and liability reasons, manufacturers will not make recommendations about the stability of drugs past the original expiration date. 1

The expiration date of a drug is estimated using stability testing under good manufacturing practices as determined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drug products marketed in the US typically have an expiration that extends from 12 to 60 months from the time of manufacturer. Once the original container is opened, either by the patient or the health care provider who will dispense the drug, that original expiration date on the container can no longer be relied upon. 2 However, the actual shelf life of the drug may be much longer, as stability studies have shown. 3

At the pharmacy, “beyond-use” dates are often put on the prescription bottle label given to the patient. These dates often say “do not use after. ” or “discard after. ” and are required by the Board of Pharmacy in many states. These dates are typically one year from the date on the stock bottle. But why would these expiration dates be different? According to the manufacturer, the stability of a drug cannot be guaranteed once the original bottle is opened. Therefore, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the body that sets the standards for pharmaceutical quality in the U.S. recommends using “beyond use” dates. The “beyond use” date would never be later than the expiration date on the manufacturer’s bottle. 4

Do expired medications lose their potency?

The American Medical Association (AMA) concluded in 2001 that the actual shelf life of some products is longer than the labeled expiration date. The AMA stated the best evidence resides in the Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) undertaken by the FDA for the Department of Defense. 2 The original purpose of the SLEP program was twofold: to determine the actual shelf life of stockpiled military medications for future use, and to save government dollars. 5 Over 3000 lots, representing 122 different drug products, were assessed in the SLEP program. Based on stability data, expiration dates on 88 percent of the lots were extended beyond their original expiration date for an average of 66 months. Of these 2652 lots, only 18 percent were terminated due to failure. Examples of common drug products that were tested with no failures included amoxicillin. ciprofloxacin. diphenhydramine. and morphine sulfate injection. Drug expiration extension dates on these products ranged from 12 to 184 months.

These results suggest that many drug products may have extended shelf lives beyond their expiration date. However, it is difficult for any one consumer or health care provider to know which product could have an extended shelf life. The ability for a drug to have an extended shelf life would be dependent upon the actual drug ingredients, presence of preservatives, temperature fluctuations, light, humidity, and other storage conditions. Additionally, the drug lots tested in the SLEP program were kept in their original packaging. Once a drug is repackaged into another container, as often happens in the pharmacy, the shelf-life might decline. 3

Is it safe to take expired medications?

There are no specific reports linking expired medication use to human toxicity. In 1963, a report was published that tied degraded tetracycline use with a form of renal tubular damage known as “Fanconi Syndrome”; however, that formulation of tetracycline in no longer marketed in the U.S. 1

Solid dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules, appear to be most stable past their expiration date. Drugs that exist in solution or as a reconstituted suspension, and that require refrigeration (such as amoxicillin suspension ), may not have the required potency if used when outdated. Loss of potency can be a major health concern, especially when treating an infection with an antibiotic. Additionally, antibiotic resistance may occur with sub-potent medications. Drugs that exist in solution, especially injectable drugs, should be discarded if the product forms a precipitant or looks cloudy or discolored. 1

EpiPen autoinjectors should not be used after the expiration date as the epinephrine has been shown to lose its potency. 1 Epipen’s are used in life-threatening situations like anaphylaxis. so there is a major health threat with an expired EpiPen. 6 Expired medications that contain preservatives, such as ophthalmic (eye) drops, may be unsafe past their expiration date. 1 Outdated preservatives may allow bacterial growth in the solution.

Insulin is used to control blood sugar in diabetes and may be susceptible to degradation after its expiration date. Oral nitroglycerin (NTG). a medication used for angina (chest pain), may lose its potency quickly once the medication bottle is opened. Vaccines. biologicals or blood products could also be subject to quick degradation once the expiration date is reached. If a patient finds a medication is powdery or crumbling, has a strong smell, or has dried up (as in the case of or ointments or creams), these drugs should be discarded. 7

Proper storage of medications may help to extend their potency. The bathroom and medicine cabinet are not ideal places to store medications due to heat and humidity. Similarly, medications should not be left in a hot car. Medications remain most stable in dry, cool spaces away from light. Keep the prescription bottle caps tightly closed and always keep medications out of reach of children and pets.

What is the bottom line?

Should patients use expired medications or not? If a medication is needed, and the patient is not able to replace the expired medication, there is no evidence that it is unsafe to take the medication in most cases. 1 However, if a medication is essential for a chronic and potentially life-threatening disease, for example, a heart condition, seizure, or life-threatening allergy, it is probably wise to get a new prescription once expired.

If an expired medication is for a minor health problem, for example, for a headache, hayfever, or mild pain, it may also be safe to take it, although drug potency might not be 100 percent. Research has shown many military stockpile medications retained 90 percent of their potency in their original stock bottle. 3 However, storage conditions of these medications were optimized for temperature and humidity, and probably do not mimic the typical storage conditions of the average household prescription bottle.

If an expired medication is taken, and the patient notices the drug has limited or no therapeutic effect, the medication should be replaced. If the medication is a biologic product, insulin, EpiPen, refrigerated liquid, eye drop, injectable, or looks like it is degraded or cloudy, it should be discarded and replaced. If questions still remain about how to handle an expired medication, it is wise to speak with your pharmacist or physician, who can offer additional information and advice. 1

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Sources

1. Anon. Drugs Past Their Expiration Date. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2009;51:101-102.

2. American Medical Association. “Pharmaceutical Expiration Dates.” Report 1 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-01). July 25, 2001. Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/csaph/csaa-01.pdf

3. Lyon RC, Taylor JS, Porter DA, et al. Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labeled expiration dates. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:1549-60.

4. American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP.org). Q A on Proposed USP Chapter 797 Revisions with E. Clyde Buchanan.

5. Woods M. Drugs may outlast label date. Post-Gazette National Bureau. May 30, 2005. Accessed Nov. 17. 2011.

6. Simons FER, et al. Outdated EpiPen and EpiPen Jr autoinjectors: past their prime? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:1025