American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – City Rankings #american #lung #association #nj


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City Rankings

The American Lung Association State of the Air 2012 report ranks the metropolitan areas based on ozone and particle pollution during 2008, 2009 and 2010. For particle pollution, we rank separately the areas with high year-round (annual average) levels and high short-term levels (24-hour) found in monitoring sites across the United States. We take official data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to compile the rankings. For more information about how we grade and rank cities, go to Methodology .

The cities are ranked by the air quality in the most polluted county in the metropolitan area. Click on the city name to open links to a chart of the trends for ozone and year-round particle levels, as well as more information about air pollution and the local Lung Association. Note that some cities rank high on one list and don t show up on other lists because of the differences in their pollution problems. Each city includes all the counties that form the economic and transportation network that makes up the metropolitan area as defined by the federal government.

The cities on the cleanest cities lists for ozone and for short-term levels of particle pollution had no days with unhealthy levels of ozone or particle pollution. These lists are not ranked because all the cities earned the same scores. The cities on the list of the cleanest for year-round particle pollution levels are ranked by their average levels of particles, as calculated by the EPA. Note that some cities are clean for one category, but not for others.

County rankings and cleanest county lists are also available in the full report .

The American Lung Association State of the Air 2012 report ranks the metropolitan areas based on ozone and particle pollution during 2008, 2009 and 2010. For particle pollution, we rank separately the areas with high year-round (annual average) levels and high short-term levels (24-hour) found in monitoring sites across the United States. We take official data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to compile the rankings. For more information about how we grade and rank cities, go to Methodology .

The cities are ranked by the air quality in the most polluted county in the metropolitan area. Click on the city name to open links to a chart of the trends for ozone and year-round particle levels, as well as more information about air pollution and the local Lung Association. Note that some cities rank high on one list and don t show up on other lists because of the differences in their pollution problems. Each city includes all the counties that form the economic and transportation network that makes up the metropolitan area as defined by the federal government.

The cities on the cleanest cities lists for ozone and for short-term levels of particle pollution had no days with unhealthy levels of ozone or particle pollution. These lists are not ranked because all the cities earned the same scores. The cities on the list of the cleanest for year-round particle pollution levels are ranked by their average levels of particles, as calculated by the EPA. Note that some cities are clean for one category, but not for others.

County rankings and cleanest county lists are also available in the full report .


Statistics – Asbestos related lung cancer #statistics, #statistical, #data, #diseases, #asbestos, #asbestosis, #lung #cancer, #tobacco #smoke, #exposure, #mesothelioma, #deaths, #


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Asbestos related lung cancer

Summary

  • The overall scale of asbestos-related lung cancer deaths has to be estimated rather than counted.
  • Research suggests there are currently about as many lung cancer deaths attributed to past asbestos exposure each year in Great Britain as there are mesothelioma deaths.
  • This implies there are currently in excess of 2,000 asbestos-related lung cancer deaths each year.
  • This estimate is uncertain, and since asbestos and smoking act together to increase the risk, it is affected by past smoking habits as well as asbestos exposure.

Background information

Asbestos is one of a large number of agents that can cause lung cancer, the most important of which is tobacco smoking.

Lung cancer usually has no specific clinical signs suggesting a particular cause and asbestos exposure and smoking act together to increase the risk. This – together with the fact that cases usually take many years to develop – makes it difficult to be sure about the cause of individual cases. As a consequence, data sources that rely on the counting of individual cases attributed to asbestos exposures, such as Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit (IIDB) and the Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) schemes, tend to underestimate the true scale of asbestos-related cases.

Epidemiological analyses that are representative of the British population suggest that there are likely to be about as many lung cancer cases attributed to past asbestos exposure each year in the population as a whole as there are mesotheliomas 1. 2. This implies there are currently in excess of 2000 asbestos-related lung cancer deaths each year.

This estimate is uncertain. Since asbestos and smoking act together to increase the risk of lung cancer, it is affected by past smoking habits as well as the extent of asbestos exposure. The ratio of lung cancers to mesotheliomas is expected to fall over time, a reflection of reductions in both asbestos exposure and the prevalence of smoking. Among more specific groups of workers heavily exposed to asbestos in the past there were typically a greater number of excess lung cancer cases than there were mesotheliomas 3.

Lung cancer is still typically fatal within a few years of diagnosis and so, as with the mesothelioma, the number of annual deaths is similar to the annual incidence of new cases.

In recent years there have been, on average, around 300 new cases of asbestos-related lung cancer each year within the IIDB scheme and less than 100 cases identified by chest physicians each year within the THOR scheme.

Estimates of the burden of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposures other than asbestos are available based on the Burden of Occupational Cancer research.

References

  1. Darnton A, McElvenny D, Hodgson J (2005). Estimating the number of asbestos related lung cancer deaths in Great Britain from 1980-2000. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 50(1): 29-38.
  2. Gilham C, Rake C, Burdett G et al (2015). Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden. Occup Environ Med. 73(5):290-9.
  3. McCormack V, Peto J, Byrnes G et al (2012). Estimating the asbestos-related lung cancer burden from mesothelioma mortality. Br J Cancer. 106(3):575-84.

Resources


Lung-Sparing Surgery May Up Mesothelioma Survival #mesothelioma, #mesothelioma #treatment, #surgery, #lung, #lung #cancer, #mesothelioma #surgery, #asbestos


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Lung-Sparing Surgery May Up Mesothelioma Survival

By Maureen Salamon

FRIDAY, Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Surgery that preserves the lung. when combined with other therapies, appears to extend the lives of people with a subtype of the rare and deadly cancer mesothelioma. a new study suggests.

Tracking 73 patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma — which affects the lungs’ protective lining in the chest cavity — researchers found that those treated with lung-sparing surgery had an average survival of nearly three years. A subset of those patients survived longer than seven years.

Mesothelioma patients treated with chemotherapy alone, which is standard care, live an average of 12 to 18 months, the researchers said.

Study participants received lung-sparing surgeries and another treatment called photodynamic therapy that uses light to kill cancer cells. Ninety-two percent of the group also received chemotherapy.

The study volunteers achieved far longer survival times, said study author Dr. Joseph Friedberg.

“When you take the [entire] lung out, it’s a significant compromise in quality of life,” said Friedberg. He’s director of the University of Maryland Medical Center’s Mesothelioma and Thoracic Oncology Treatment and Research Center in Baltimore.

“For all intents and purposes, this [lung-sparing surgical approach] is the largest palliative operation known to man, since chances of curing mesothelioma are vanishingly small,” said Friedberg. He completed the research while at his previous post at the University of Pennsylvania.

“Plus, most of these patients are elderly, so preserving quality of life was really the goal,” he added.

About 3,000 Americans are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year, the American Cancer Society says. Many of these people were exposed to the mineral asbestos in industrial occupations, according to the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Used in products such as insulation, building shingles and flooring, asbestos dust fibers can be inhaled or swallowed, settling in the lungs, stomach or other body areas. Often, it takes decades after exposure for mesothelioma to develop, the NCI says.

Friedberg and his team performed the lung-sparing surgeries on study participants between 2005 and 2013. Overall average survival was 35 months, the study showed. But survival time more than doubled to 7.3 years for 19 patients whose cancer had not spread to their lymph nodes.

Continued

Most of the patients in the study had stage 3 or stage 4 cancer. Typically, Friedberg said, only about 15 to 20 percent of mesothelioma patients are treated with surgery, which often removes an entire lung as well as the diaphragm and the sac surrounding the heart .

Friedberg said that between 20 and 40 percent of pleural mesothelioma patients with the epithelial subtype might be eligible for lung-sparing surgery. He explained that this surgery removes all visible traces of cancer. It typically has fewer complications and a lower risk of dying in the 90 days following the 10- to 14-hour procedure.

“It’s still relatively new that people do lung-sparing surgery for this disease, and it’s not established that this is what we need to do,” said Friedberg.

“I would say this is one of the most lethal cancers known to man. There’s a pressing need for new and innovative treatments,” he noted.

Another mesothelioma expert said he was cautiously optimistic about the new study’s results.

“It’s not a randomized trial and I think they selected out. only those patients who were well enough to get to surgery and those with the epithelial subtype who are the patients who tend to do the best,” said Dr. Gregory Masters.

He is principal investigator with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program at the Helen F. Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute in Newark, Del.

“Taking the best patients is going to skew the study and make the outcome look very good,” added Masters. “But I am encouraged they can take a large group of patients and show such a good outcome at three years.”

Dr. Daniel Petro, a medical oncologist/hematologist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, said lung-sparing surgery for mesothelioma is also done at academic centers such as his, and he was not surprised by the study’s results.

“This [surgical approach] is a step forward with this particular terrible cancer,” Petro said, “and we’ve got to keep coming up with better options to eradicate it.”

The study was published in the December issue of Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

WebMD News from HealthDay

Sources

SOURCES: Joseph S. Friedberg, M.D. director, Mesothelioma and Thoracic Oncology Treatment and Research Center, University of Maryland Medical Center, and professor, surgery, and head, Division of Thoracic Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore; Gregory A. Masters, M.D. principal investigator, U.S. National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP), Helen F. Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Del.; Daniel Petro, M.D. medical oncologist/hematologist, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; December 2016, Annals of Thoracic Surgery

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