Setting up an llc in michigan, setting up an llc in michigan.#Setting #up #an #llc #in #michigan


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setting up an llc in michigan

Hurricane Harvey Relief Efforts:

Click here for information from the URJ (update from 8/30/2017)

5778/2017 High Holy Days

Setting up an llc in michigan

Click here to fill out your member High Holy Day Forms (HHD Appeal, Book of Remembrance, Child Care, Brotherhood Sisterhood Volunteering, etc).*

Click here to purchase non-member High Holy Day Tickets

If you are a member of a congregation outside of Austin and would like to attend services, please have your home congregation contact the CBI office with a request for reciprocal tickets.

Click on the links below for more details about High Holy Day Logistics:

Donate to our annual High Holy Day Food Drive, benefiting the Central Texas Food Bank. Every $1 donated creates 4 meals!

Setting up an llc in michigan

Learning

At CBI, we have learning for all ages – from religious school for our youth, post bnei mitzvah education, basic Judaism classes and Adult Education.

Setting up an llc in michigan

Social Action

Our community is actively involved with coordinating the efforts of the congregation’s activities, fulfilling the mitzvah of tikkun olam, repairing the world.

Setting up an llc in michigan

Hesed (Loving Kindness)

We have a caring community that helps provide support to our community in their times of need and joy.

Setting up an llc in michigan

Youth Groups

Combined social, educational, religious and social action programs to create opportunities for the synagogue’s children to create lasting friendships.

Setting up an llc in michigan

Solar Panels Pace Project

Congregation Beth Israel installed solar panels on the roof of the Shirley Barish Learning Center as part of our ongoing commitment to environmental stewardship. Another way that Congregation Beth Israel continues to improve on it’s commitment to the environment was its participation as the first organization to go through the PACE process and be approved. CBI has been nationally recognized for its commitment.


Mold Removal Deerfield Beach and Mold Remediation Deerfield Beach Florida #mold #removal #deerfield #beach, #mold #remediation #deerfield #beach, #mold #removal #florida, #mold #remediation #florida, #mold #remediator #deerfield #beach, #clean #mold #deerfield #beach, #indoor #air #quality #testing #deerfield #beach, #leak #detection #deerfield #beach, #leak #repair #deerfield #beach, #infrared #inspection #deerfield #beach, #deerfield #beach #mold #company, #mold #remediation, #mold #removal, #household #mold, #mold #in #homes, #home #mold, #kill #mold, #vent #cleaning, #rug #carpet #cleaning, #carpet #cleaning, #air #duct #cleaning, #duct #cleaning, #mold #clean #up, #deerfield #beach #roof #repair, #deerfield #beach #plumbing #repair, #deerfield #beach #water #damage, #black #mold #removal, #toxic #mold #removal, #mold #removal #fl, #mold #remediation #fl, #mold #removal #33441, #mold #remediation #33441, #mold #removal #33442, #mold #remediation #33442, #mold #removal #33443, #mold #remediation #33443


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Mold Removal Deerfield Beach and Mold Remediation Deerfield Beach

Self-Directed Testing at Your Property

Testing should be performed prior to mold remediation to determine what types of mold are present. Testing on your own is easy and inexpensive. Follow simple sampling instructions, mail in your samples, and receive a testing report with laboratory findings. You can test for mold, asbestos, lead, water contamination, or drug residue on your own without an on-site inspector.

Find out what potentially harmful contaminants are present in your environment with this process.

It is important to select the right company with the right professionals to conduct your mold remediation and mold testing services. Indoor-Restore Environmental Services’ mold remediation technicians are the right solution to provide proper removal, air treatment, containment, leak repair, disposal of contaminated building material, anti-fungal treatment and, if requested, restoration of your property in the Deerfield Beach area.

When conditions are ideal with the temperature, humidity and other factors within a property, mold can begin forming in various exposed or hidden places in your home, business or other property. Often the location of mold is not visible to the occupants of the property, existing within a wall, behind a cabinet or furniture, or in an attic or crawlspace.

To reach us regarding your property situation, call us today at 1-866-453-3441.

Our professional mold removal and remediation services in Deerfield Beach, Florida include:

  • Mold Removal and Mold Remediation
  • Mold Mitigation and Assessment
  • Mold Inspection and Testing
  • Leak Detection and Leak Repair
  • Water Damage Assessment and Mitigation
  • Water Damage Repair
  • Black Mold Removal / Toxic Mold Removal
  • Mold and Mildew Cleaning / Mold Damage Repair
  • Mold Prevention / Anti-Fungal Treatment
  • Odor Removal / Deodorization
  • Air Purification / Filtration
  • Property Restoration
  • 10-Year Warranty on Mold Remediation Services

With nearly 20 years of industry experience, including being an established mold training organization, Indoor-Restore Environmental Services is the leader in water and mold contamination detection and mold problem resolution.

Mold removal and remediation involves a series of steps to properly assess the situation and treat the problem. Each step has specific protocols that need to be followed to ensure success. The general steps include:

  1. Identifying the Source of Moisture and Mold Growth
  2. Identifying the Extent of Mold Growth and Water Damage
  3. Containing the Mold Growth and Contaminated Areas
  4. Removing the Mold Damaged Building Materials
  5. Decontaminating the Building Material and Contents
  6. Clearance Testing the Treated Areas to Verify That the Area is Clean

In the Deerfield Beach, FL area, Indoor-Restore provides its mold removal and remediation services to the following zip codes and areas: 33441, 33442, 33443, Broward County, 754, 954 Area Code .

Indoor-Restore provides its certified mold removal and mold remediation services throughout the Deerfield Beach area. In addition, we also have locations to serve you locally in the following areas near Deerfield Beach:

If you are a tenant in Florida and would like information about renter’s rights and landlord obligations in regards to mold removal and remediation, as well as the water damage restoration of your property, visit our page on Florida Renter’s Rights with Mold .

Request Information/Quote


Deerfield Beach Services


The 10 Biggest Energy Company Bankruptcies #look #up #bankruptcies


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The 10 Biggest Energy Company Bankruptcies

By Andrew Topf – Oct 10, 2014, 6:31 PM CDT

Running a multi-billion dollar energy company isn t easy. Just ask the executives in the corner suites of some of the energy companies that have gone bust over the years. Some, like Enron, were brought down because of insider malfeasance. A few, like ATP, blamed damaging government policies, while others went off the rails due to market forces that left the company and its shareholders flat-footed, deep in debt, and eventually broke. Here are the bankruptcies that will be etched into the tombstones of failed energy fortunes for time immemorial.

1.Enron. Bankrupt December 2, 2001. Assets $65.5 billion

Enron grew from a simple pipeline company into the world s largest energy trader by using the Internet to buy and sell natural gas and electric power to help utilities and industrial power users hedge against price fluctuations. By 2000, Enron was worth an astonishing $68 billion, but when the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission started investigating, it was revealed that much of the money was based on shady accounting practices and un-recorded losses. In one year, Enron s stock price plummeted from more than $90 to less than $1, resulting in $11 billion in shareholder losses. The subsequent bankruptcy remains the largest in U.S. history. CEO Kenneth Lay and fellow Enron executive Jeffrey Skilling were convicted in 2006 of fraud and conspiracy. Lay died from a heart attack while awaiting sentencing. Skilling is still in prison.

2. Energy Future Holdings. Bankrupt April 29, 2014. Assets $36.4 billion

Energy Future Holdings became the largest power producer in Texas in 2007 after a $45 billion buyout of TXU Corp. But the company struggled under the weight of $40 billion in debt after revenues plunged due to lower prices for natural gas and electricity. Energy Future Holdings was broken up in April under the terms of a restructuring deal.

3.Pacific Gas Electric Company. Bankrupt April 6, 2001. Assets $36.1 billion

California s largest publicly-owned utility went bust after deregulation led the company to incur billions in debt. After selling its gas power plants, the company had to buy power from other energy companies. Buying at fluctuating prices and selling at fixed prices led to losses and eventual bankruptcy. But according to Time, wholesale prices eventually dropped, and the day the company emerged from bankruptcy in 2004, its stock was worth three times as much as when it filed for protection.

Related: The Biggest Energy Trading Disaster In History

4.Texaco. Bankrupt April 12, 1987. Assets $34.9 billion

Texaco started out in 1901 as the Texas Fuel Company and was independent for 100 years before merging with Chevron in 2001. However, in the 1980s, Texaco became embroiled in a legal battle with Pennzoil, and ended up owing the company $10.5 billion. That led to Texaco filing for bankruptcy, which at the time, was the largest in U.S. history.

5.Calpine Corporation. Bankrupt December 20, 2005. Assets $26.6 billion

In the mid-2000s, Calpine was the biggest owner of natural gas-fired plants in the U.S. But soaring fuel costs led the company to incur more than $22.5 billion in debt. The subsequent bankruptcy filing followed the ouster of top executives after they lost a fight with bondholders to use proceeds from asset sales to buy fuel. The company received $2 billion in financing to allow it to keep its plants supplying customers.

6. ATP Oil Gas. Bankrupt April 17, 2012. Assets $3.6 billion

In 2009, ATP Oil Gas, an offshore oil producer, refinanced $1.5 billion in debt, with the goal of doubling its production to 50,000 barrels a day. Then came the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster. A 2010 moratorium on deepwater operations in the Gulf of Mexico meant ATP was not able to complete wells on its Titan production platform. Forced to spin off Titan and borrow $350 million, ATP spiralled downward, crushed by $2.7 billion in debt obligations. In a Forbes article. ATP s CEO blamed the Obama Administration and its illegal ban on deepwater drilling in the wake of the BP disaster, for the implosion of the company.

7. Patriot Coal. Bankrupt July 9, 2012. Assets $3.6 billion

As the largest producer of thermal coal in the eastern U.S. Patriot Coal was particularly vulnerable to low coal prices, competition from cheap natural gas, a slowing U.S. economy and tougher environmental rules. Patriot Coal lost money every year since 2010, and in 2012 recorded a loss of $198.5 million. To stay afloat during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process, the company received $802 million from three major banks.

8. James River Coal. Bankrupt April 8, 2014. Assets $1 billion.

Another victim of the U.S. coal downturn, James River Coal declared itself bankrupt in April, 2014, having emerged from a previous bankruptcy in 2004. The company listed $818.7 million in debt after being forced to close a dozen mines. James River Coal was granted a $110-million loan to keep operating under court protection. At the time of the bankruptcy, the company’s stock was trading for 36 cents, compared to $60 a share in 2008.

Related: How Rising Interest Rates Could Spell the End of the U.S. Energy Boom

9. OGX. Bankrupt Oct. 30, 2013. Debts $5.1 billion

Darling of Brazilian billionaire Eike Batista, OGX Petr leo e Gas Participa es SA filed for bankruptcy protection after failing to reach an agreement with creditors to negotiate part of its $5.1 billion debt. The bankruptcy was the largest in Latin America. The blow to Batista s mining and oil and gas empire came after disappointing output from offshore wells set off a crisis of investor confidence.

10. Suntech. Bankrupt March 20, 2013. Debts $1.6 billion

The Chinese solar panel manufacturer, one of the world s biggest, was forced into bankruptcy court after the company missed a $541 million payment to bondholders. The company s misfortunes were blamed on a glut in the market for solar panels, which collapsed prices. Another solar industry giant, Germany s Q-Cells, was caught in the downturn the year earlier.

By Andrew Topf of Oilprice.com

More Top Reads From Oilprice.com:

  • Junior Mining Companies Looking for Financial Lifeboats
  • Why Natural Gas Prices Collapsed
  • Debt: Eight Reasons This Time is Different

Pop up Banners #banner #display #stands,banner #exhibitions #tands,banner #stands #display,exhibition #banner #stands,go #displays,pop #up #banner #stands,pop #up #banners,pop #up #stands,pull #up #stand,roller #banner #stands


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Pop Up Banners


We manufacture every Pop Up Banner in the UK to guarantee quality and to ensure they retain their reliability for many years to come. Our Pop Up Banner Stands are designed to be compact and lightweight to make travelling to and from different events absolutely effortless. The joy of the Pop Up Banner Stands is literally in the name as setting up is simply a case of pulling up the banner and linking it with the pole.

For anyone who regularly takes part in any kind of events; from exhibitions, sales presentations, up to important conferences and many more, it is imperative to present yourself in a fully professional yet stylish way. There is nothing better to achieve that than well-designed, eye catching Pop Up Banner Stands.

At Go Displays we take pride in manufacturing Pop Up Banner Stands with the best quality graphics available. To achieve this, we only use the highest quality inks and laminates available when printing onto the Pop Up Banner Stands. For this reason, we include a three year guarantee with all of our Pop Up Banner Stands, so you can rest assured your pop up is designed to be used at multiple events for years to come.

Why use Pop-Up Banner Stands?

Pop-Up Banners provide a very cost effective way of marketing your business and getting your message out there. Here at Go Displays we dispatch your Pop Up Banners within 48 hours from receipt of order and artwork. We design and manufacture all of our Pop Up Banners from start to finish on site and all in-house, meaning we can offer lightning quick services without compromising on the quality of the Pop-Up Banner stand. All printing, laminating and graphic design for your Pop Up Banners is completed at our premises in Peterborough.

All of our Pop Up Banner Stands are lightweight and compact, making them easy to transport to your shows and exhibitions, with each of the Pop Up Banner only weighing 5kg making them so quick and easy to assemble. The design size and shape of your Pop Up Banner Stands give you flexibility, making them suitable for literally any industry or business. Pop Up Banner Stands are a true favourite at Go Displays because of their ease of use, taking only one person a matter of seconds to set up the banner stands.

Pop Up Banner are a great way to promote your business in any area, whether that’s on site, in the office, at a trade show or window display. Pop Up Banner Stands allow you to display all of your company information, current offers etc. capturing the attention of your potential customers easily and quickly, making Pop Up Banner Stands the ideal tool for first time exhibitors, and local clubs and events.

Need help designing your Banner?

Here at Go Displays we offer a complete in-house Graphic Design service for the Pop Up Banner Stands that�s available for all of our customers. Whether you�re looking for individual Pop Up Banner Stands or a full scale Display Stand we can help make sure your design promotes your business in the best possible way. We know that designing the artwork for your Pop Up Banner Stands can be the most stressful part of the order process, so our aim is to make this smoother for the customer by working closely with you to create your perfect Pop Up Banner Stands, giving you a display you are proud to use to present your business.

Not sure what kind design you want for your Pop Up Banner Stands? We offer a Graphic Design service for banner stands, which means you can choose from our ready-made templates that have been specifically designed for each Pop Up. We add in your logo, the text of your choice and your images, and it�s as simple as that. This is a great service for anyone working on a tight budget!

If you can�t source your own images for the Pop Up Banner Stands or you�re worried that what you have won�t work on your Pop Up, then Go Displays have a solution! By using our Graphic Design service you have access to our extensive image library, consisting of a variety of images to suit all sectors, all of which are of the highest quality and can be used on any of our Pop Up Banner Stands.

DELIVERY GUIDE & CHARGES

For instant ship items ordered by 11.00 we dispatch the same day. All other items are manufactured to order. View Delivery Information


Signing Up for a Personal Matchmaking Service #site #dating


#matchmaking services

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Signing Up for a Personal Matchmaking Service

Relationships For Dummies

Personal matchmaking services vary enormously, depending on their population; the credentials, training, skill, professionalism, and ethics of the matchmaker; whether the company is a nationwide franchise or a more personalized boutique service; whether the matchmaker meets you or not; and whether the service is a real business or a hobby the owner is doing to meet a special someone. A difference also exists between businesses run predominantly to make money and those run by someone who actually cares about the service sold.

Most personal matchmaking services will interview you extensively, asking questions about your relationship goal and match preferences. The service screens and researches matches for you and then notifies you via mail or phone that your match is ready. If both parties accept the match, names and numbers are exchanged, and you and your match get in touch to arrange a date. The service does the work while you have all the fun. Not bad, eh?

Prices vary from almost nothing ($150) to $4,000 or more, depending on your city and the type of program involved. Good services cost at least $1,000 because of all the work involved and the cost to the company. Services go by time (one or two years) or by the number of matches you receive. Prices for personalized matchmaking services tend to be firm and should stay firm.

In contrast to library-type matchmaking services, where you basically do all the work and can consequently bid down the price, personalized matchmaking services do as much of the work for you as possible. Your membership fee has to cover the more in-depth interviewing and screening, the matchmaker s time, and the salary of the people informing you by phone or letter about your match. Just like library services, personal services have to pay for rent, office expenses, advertising, and direct mail. Therefore, these services reap much less profit than library services and, hence, have less room to cut costs. The benefit of all that, however, is that you ll feel less like you re buying a used car!

Pluses: There are many advantages to using a credible matchmaking service. If you re a busy person with many responsibilities, you ll appreciate the convenience and time saved. Because the service does everything that you don t have to do (interviewing, screening, and researching your matches), and you spend your time doing what only you can do (dating the people and figuring out who s more compatible for you), this is the easiest, most time-efficient way to meet people. Everyone burns out when they do too much of something for too long, so allowing a service to do what you don t have to do enables you to date longer before burning out. Since dating burnout is often a problem with other methods, this is a big advantage over library services, personal ads, and any other dating method where you do more of the work.

The personalized, confidential attention is often more comfortable than flipping through photos of prospective mates in a large room filled with strangers or putting your personal information on a library shelf or in an ad for others to review. In addition, because the matchmaker has to match you, she has to keep the numbers relatively even with regard to sex, age, and other variables. This is a huge advantage over the library services.

Minuses: Nothing in life is perfect. So like all methods of finding a special sweetie, personal matchmaking services have their drawbacks, too the amount depending on the specifics of that service. For example, some services have you fill out forms and interview with someone other than the matchmaker. Others claim to send your data out of town to a person or computer program that supposedly matches you. Do not use these kinds of services.

If a matchmaker hasn t met you, then that person knows very little about your personality, so your matches are less likely to be compatible. Also, be wary of any service that says it s testing you. Valid, standardized psychological tests must be administered, scored, interpreted, and kept under lock and key by a psychologist. Chances are, the tests you take are just quizzes, and results may not even be taken into consideration. Quizzes aren t necessarily bad, but don t let a service convince you that it s best simply because it uses non-standardized, unreliable quizzes.


Nas Lyrics – Shoot Em Up, shoot em up nas.#Shoot #em #up #nas


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“Shoot ‘Em Up” lyrics

3 loaded clips, 4 niggas roll, one nigga drives

500 Benz, 6 reasons why

This kid should die

We shootin every motherfucker outside

Pulled on his block, jumped out the car, guns in our hand

At the same time everybody ran

There that nigga go, hiding in the crowd

Let the trigger blow, 7 shots now he lying on the ground

Blood on the floor

Then we shot some more

Niggas he was with

2 niggas hit, one nigga fell

One tryed to run, go get him son

Make sure he’s done before we bail, i aint trying to goto jail

Must handle beef, code of the street

Load up the heat, if these nigga think they could fuck around

Real niggas do real things

By all means, niggas knowin how we get down.. It goes.

Shoot ’em up, just shoot ’em up, what..

Kill kill kill, murder murder murder

Driving through roads, Suburban Chevrolet

6 tinted windows, and I’m on my way

To get up with my hoes, I pull up to they house

Not a freak to be heard, nobody came out

Ringin the bell, where in the hell

Could they be at, I’m about to leave

Steppin’ slow, where my truck was at

Who the fuck is that?

Could it be a jack?

Now pull my strap, it’s my man

And we have the same plan

There them bitches go

Civic ’94, looking funny though

Open up the car door, funny smile

Fuck 2 already, 3rd ass was heavy

Nas this is Sherri, Sherri this is Nas, and his man. Ready?

Walked in the house, snatched off they clothes

Ran through them hoes

Plenty ice, that they all seemed to like

Can’t find my man, heard a blam blam

Now I’m wonderin, In this scam, do I even stand a chance?

He killed the hoes, took all they doe

Fire in his eyes, higher than the sky

Comin down the stairs

Now he wantin mine, reachin for my nine

Aiming with our guns at each others face, at the same time

my nine on his lips, his fifth on my chin, I start whispering

Put your gun down, we can skip town

Rocked him to sleep, pushed back his meat

Lift off his chain

Took his shit, emptied out close range.

[3rd time there is no whispering of: kill kill kill, murder murder muder .]


Freezing in the office? It – s because air conditioning standards are sexist – Great Moments In Science – ABC Radio National (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), central air conditioner freezing up.#Central #air #conditioner #freezing #up


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ABC Radio National

Freezing in the office? It s because air conditioning standards are sexist

For 50 years air conditioning in commercial buildings has been set using the Standard 55 guidelines. But many workplaces aren’t staffed solely with 40-year-old men dressed in 60s business suits, and that’s left women out in the cold, as Dr Karl Kruszelnicki argues.

Worldwide, sales of air conditioning units go up by about 20 per cent each year.

But apart from the cost and energy involved in cooling our buildings, modern air conditioning set-ups all have a fundamental flaw—they are sexist.

You see, men love aircon, but women often shiver.

If we just set the thermostat to a slightly higher temperature, we can save energy and money.

You know what I mean—the men are fine in shirt-sleeves, but the women have to wear cardigans and scarves.

In the good old days, the weather was always fine. But then there was that unfortunate incident involving Adam, Eve, the apple and the talking snake. So God tipped the Earth off its vertical axis, and—according to Milton’s Paradise Lost—for the first time, Adam and Eve suffered ‘scorching heat in summer . pinching cold in winter’.

The Ancient Egyptians cooled down by using the evaporation of water, as wind blew over moistened reeds hanging in windows.

The Ancient Romans and Persians used similar technologies.

By the second century AD, the Chinese had huge fans, three metres in diameter and human-powered, blowing air over water rising from fountains.

It was 1902 before the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented, by Willis Carrier in New York.

And for the last 50 years, the air conditioning settings in our buildings have followed the famous—and sexist—Standard 55.

Standard 55 is a set of guidelines for how to regulate indoor temperature and humidity.

It was introduced in 1966, by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. They considered environmental factors, like temperature and humidity, and some human factors—the metabolic rate, and the clothing worn by office workers.

And you guessed it, the human they chose to base that on was a 40-year-old man, weighing 70kg, and dressed in a full 1960s business suit.

And all modern air conditioning systems are set up to follow this famous Standard 55.

Now that you know the background, you can see a few problems.

First, the metabolic rate varies enormously—depending on height, weight, fitness, the type of work, and of course, gender.

Women usually have both lower height and weight, and a higher percentage of body fat than men. In fact modern researchers reckon women pump out about a third less heat than men do, and so don’t need as much cooling.

Did you know Great Moments In Science is a podcast? You can subscribe on iTunes, ABC Radio or your favourite podcasting app.

The second problem is also obvious—women tend to wear lighter clothing, and expose more skin. In an office you don’t often see a man’s naked knees.

The third problem is a little more subtle, and it’s related to the ‘glass ceiling’, where women are less likely to get promoted regardless of their qualifications. Boo the patriarchy.

And so, the men get the more attractive corner offices with lots of glass and great views, while the women are clustered more towards the centre of the building.

Now one factor here is that glass leaks heat like crazy, and so in summer, the men in the corner offices want the aircon running colder.

Another factor is that the aircon vents are usually closer to the centre of the building. So the women in their lighter clothes are directly in the blast of the cold air squirting out of the vents, on its way to the warmer corner offices.

And this leads to the situation where sometimes women actually have to turn on heaters, in the middle of summer, so that they are not continually shivering.

Cardigan wars aside, there’s a bigger issue with air conditioning—the cost. But the cost could help end the days of sexist aircon.

If we just set the thermostat to a slightly higher temperature, we can save energy and money.

According to Richard de Dear, a professor of architectural and design science at the University of Sydney, just resetting the thermostat from 22 to 25 degrees Celsius could cut a quarter off the cooling bill.

At that lady-friendly temperature, suitless men can chill out, and women won’t have to battle a cold front while they’re fighting the glass ceiling.

Central air conditioner freezing up


Dividends and Preferences: Why Can t I Take My LLC Public? #set #up #llc #in #delaware


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Why shouldn’t I start my new business as an limited liability company (LLC) instead of a corporation? My uncle tells me that all the savvy business folks use LLCs now.

I have heard some variation on this question many times over the years. The answer to what sort of entity you should use when forming your business is a complex one that will depend on many factors and you should certainly consult your accountants, lawyers and tax advisers (and probably not your uncle, unless he happens to be one of the foregoing).

However, as I have posted in great detail before. one thing I can say with a fair amount of certainty is that, if you intend to raise venture capital, you should almost never use the LLC form. There are many reasons for this — most of which I discussed in this prior post. But one point I made deserves some additional flavor. I noted, almost in passing, that it is not possible to do an IPO with an LLC. Any LLC that wanted to go public would be required to first convert to a corporation anyway with potentially very adverse tax consequences
I recently was asked why it is “impossible” to do an IPO with an LLC. This is a good question, as there are certainly no federal or SRO prohibitions on doing an initial public offering as an LLC. In fact, there are publicly traded LLCs — Fortress and OchZiff come to mind. More below the fold.

However, LLCs are creatures of state laws and it is the state laws that often make it impossible (or exceedingly difficult) to do an initial public offering of an LLC. For example, there are states that do or did not allow the free exchange of LLC interests. Also, there are states that require an LLC to dissolve when a member dies and states that require all LLCs to dissolve after a set period of time, ex. 30 years. All of these terms would make an IPO impossible without first converting the LLC to a different entity/state.

These laws are in flux and often a state with a more antiquated LLC statute will update it. Unfortunately, the existing LLCs will still have the old terms in their operating agreements. Sometimes an amendment will be possible, it depends on the terms of the operating agreement and votes required, but it could be tax painful or logistically difficult.

Even if you formed your LLC in a state that has an IPO friendly set of statutes (Delaware comes to mind), in my experience an IPO remains practically impossible because of the underwriters. Underwriters do not want any hair on an offering — anything that could give a potential investor pause. Often, an underwriter will force a company formed outside of Delaware to convert to Delaware just for purposes of the IPO. To try to go to market with an exotic IPO equity like an LLC membership interest is simply a non-starter for anything that is already risky, i.e. a tech start-up. In today’s IPO market, it is hard enough to get underwriters interested in a start-up IPO, it would take extraordinarily exceptional circumstances to convince them to underwrite an LLC.

My final thought is, if you are founding a company that hopes for venture capital, why ratchet up your level of difficulty from the beginning? You will have enough business challenges — why give yourself structural challenges too. If you know you are creating a company that will need VC and you hope in your heart of hearts to someday do an IPO, why not instead take the path of least resistance when you form your company and use a C corporation? (Again, this is not to say that LLCs are not VERY useful in many other circumstances.)

Why Can’t I Take My LLC Public?

Why shouldn’t I start my new business as an limited liability company (LLC) instead of a corporation? My uncle tells me that all the savvy business folks use LLCs now.

I have heard some variation on this question many times over the years. The answer to what sort of entity you should use when forming your business is a complex one that will depend on many factors and you should certainly consult your accountants, lawyers and tax advisers (and probably not your uncle, unless he happens to be one of the foregoing).

However, as I have posted in great detail before. one thing I can say with a fair amount of certainty is that, if you intend to raise venture capital, you should almost never use the LLC form. There are many reasons for this — most of which I discussed in this prior post. But one point I made deserves some additional flavor. I noted, almost in passing, that it is not possible to do an IPO with an LLC. Any LLC that wanted to go public would be required to first convert to a corporation anyway with potentially very adverse tax consequences
I recently was asked why it is “impossible” to do an IPO with an LLC. This is a good question, as there are certainly no federal or SRO prohibitions on doing an initial public offering as an LLC. In fact, there are publicly traded LLCs — Fortress and OchZiff come to mind. More below the fold.

However, LLCs are creatures of state laws and it is the state laws that often make it impossible (or exceedingly difficult) to do an initial public offering of an LLC. For example, there are states that do or did not allow the free exchange of LLC interests. Also, there are states that require an LLC to dissolve when a member dies and states that require all LLCs to dissolve after a set period of time, ex. 30 years. All of these terms would make an IPO impossible without first converting the LLC to a different entity/state.

These laws are in flux and often a state with a more antiquated LLC statute will update it. Unfortunately, the existing LLCs will still have the old terms in their operating agreements. Sometimes an amendment will be possible, it depends on the terms of the operating agreement and votes required, but it could be tax painful or logistically difficult.

Even if you formed your LLC in a state that has an IPO friendly set of statutes (Delaware comes to mind), in my experience an IPO remains practically impossible because of the underwriters. Underwriters do not want any hair on an offering — anything that could give a potential investor pause. Often, an underwriter will force a company formed outside of Delaware to convert to Delaware just for purposes of the IPO. To try to go to market with an exotic IPO equity like an LLC membership interest is simply a non-starter for anything that is already risky, i.e. a tech start-up. In today’s IPO market, it is hard enough to get underwriters interested in a start-up IPO, it would take extraordinarily exceptional circumstances to convince them to underwrite an LLC.

My final thought is, if you are founding a company that hopes for venture capital, why ratchet up your level of difficulty from the beginning? You will have enough business challenges — why give yourself structural challenges too. If you know you are creating a company that will need VC and you hope in your heart of hearts to someday do an IPO, why not instead take the path of least resistance when you form your company and use a C corporation? (Again, this is not to say that LLCs are not VERY useful in many other circumstances.)


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FBackup è un software di backup gratuito sia per scopi commerciali che per uso personale. Questo significa che risparmi denaro non dovendo comprare un altro programma di backup.

Backup automatici.

Definisci un backup, lo imposti per farlo eseguire automaticamente e te ne puoi anche dimenticare. FBackup eseguirà automaticamente il backup alla data schedulata, così non solo hai il vantaggio di avere i tuoi dati protetti ma risparmierai anche tempo prezioso.

Backup con compressione zip standard.

Usando la tipologia backup completo, i file sorgenti verranno archiviati usando la compressione zip standard. FBackup usa la compressione ZIP64, che vuol dire che può creare file zip più grandi di 2GB. Inoltre, puoi proteggere i file zip richiedendo di inserire una password per estrarre i dati.

Esegui azioni prima e dopo il backup.

Per ogni backup impostato puoi definire un’azione da eseguire prima o dopo il backup. Per esempio, puoi impostare l’azione “Pulisci backup” prima che il backup parta, così che i file precedentemente salvati saranno cancellati prima di caricare i nuovi. Come azione post backup, puoi impostare di eseguire un log-off, mettere in stand-by, in ibernazione o persino spegnere il computer una volta che il backup si è concluso con successo.

Copie esatte dei file.

Se non vuoi avere i file salvati in un unico file zip, FBackup può eseguire copie esatte dei file sorgenti del backup. Potendo FBackup eseguire il backup anche delle cartelle vuote, puoi usare questa tipologia di backup per creare nella destinazione una copia speculare dei file originali.

Facile da usare.

Le due principali funzioni di un programma di backup sono le operazioni di backup e di ripristino. FBackup te le rende facili offrendoti delle amichevoli procedure passo-passo. Avvia il wizard per un nuovo backup, seleziona cosa, dove, come e quando eseguire il backup, e il backup è pronto per essere eseguito. Se devi ripristinare i file, apri il wizard di ripristino che ti chiederà dove vuoi ripristinare i file.

Aggiornamenti automatici.

FBackup controlla automaticamente ogni settimana se ci sono aggiornamenti, così puoi sapere quando una nuova versione è disponibile. L’opzione per controllare gli aggiornamenti può essere disabilitata ma raccomandiamo di lasciarla abilitata così che FBackup possa essere sempre aggiornato.

Destinazioni di backup multiple.

Di default la posizione dove i tuoi backup saranno salvati è la partizione locale di Windows. Per essere sicuro di avere i tuoi backup in salvo, hai bisogno di posizionare i tuoi backup su altre destinazioni, che sono supportate da FBackup (come un drive USB/Firewire esterno o un drive di rete mappato). In questo modo, se il tuo computer dovesse subire un danno hardware, avresti i tuoi dati salvi su un dispositivo esterno.

Plugin di backup.

Puoi caricare plugin per eseguire il backup o il ripristino delle impostazioni di programmi specifici o altri dati personalizzati (come i salvataggi dei giochi, email. etc.). Una volta caricati in FBackup, questi plugin aggiungeranno alla lista dei Backup Predefiniti i file sorgenti necessari da salvare per quel particolare programma. Puoi vedere la lista di tutti i plugin di backup disponibili qui: Plugin di Backup Gratuiti.

Backup dei file aperti.

Se un file è aperto da un altro programma al momento del backup, FBackup sarà ancora in grado di eseguire il backup di questo file perché usa il servizio Volume Shadow che Windows fornisce. Così, finchè sei in Windows 10, 8/8.1, 7, Vista, XP, 2012/2008/2003 Server (32/64-bit), FBackup eseguirà il backup di questi file aperti. Per esempio, sarai in grado di eseguire backup delle tue email e le impostazioni di Outlook senza doverlo chiudere prima.

Multi-lingua.

Scegli una lingua per l’interfaccia utente tra le lingue correntemente supportate. Se ci vuoi aiutare a tradurre il sito web o l’interfaccia del programma in un’altra lingua, lo puoi fare visitando la pagina Lingue.

FBackup è un software di backup gratuito per file, non è raccomandato per backup completi di sistema (backup immagine di sistema).


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